University of Canberra
Skip to main content

UC Referencing Guide

General Guidelines

Include the DOI in the reference if it is available. 

Effective March 2017, the recommended DOI display format looks like this:  

However, older formats such as doi:10.1037/arc0000014 or are also acceptable.   

Pick one format to use consistently throughout a reference list.

If each issue of a journal begins on page 1, give the issue number in round brackets after the volume number. If the pagination is continuous throughout the volume, no issue is entered.



Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pages. ‚Äč

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pages. doi:xxxxx

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pages. Retrieved from http://xxxxx


Johns, E., & Mewhort, D. (2009). Test sequence priming in recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 35, 1162-1174.

Noor, A. (2008). Ethics, religion and good governance. JOAAG: Journal of Administration & Governance, 3(2), 62-77. Retrieved from

Ramalho, M., Da Silva, G., & Dias, L. (2009). Genetic plant improvement and climate changes. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology, 9(2), 189-195. Retrieved from

Restouin, A., Aresta, S., Prebet, T., Borg, J., Badache, A., & Collette, Y. (2009). A Simplified, 96-well-adapted, ATP luminescence-based motility assay. BioTechniques, 47, 871-875. Retrieved from


See Journal Article - Print for all forms of journal articles.

EndNote Reference Type

Electronic Article

Citing a Source Within a Source

When citing a source you have not read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read.

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999, p. 25) stated that ". . ."

". . ." (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen, & Kowalski, 2009, p. 63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. San Francisco, CA: Brooks Cole.

Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Milton, Australia: Wiley.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.


Title of work. (Year of publication). Location: Publisher.


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. (1983). Oxford, England: Blackwell.

No Location / No Publisher / No Year

General guidelines

There are no guidelines for citing works without a Location or Publisher in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.  It is common practice in other citation styles to use n.p. in the Location and to leave out the Publisher.  Please consult your lecturer before citing material without a Location or Publisher.

If the date is not known - substitute an approximate date in square brackets or n.d. in round brackets in place of the year.


Author, A. A. [ca. year]. Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Location: Publisher.


Smythe, V. [ca. 2007]. Ant colonies: How they communicate. Canberra, Australia: Emu.

Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. London, England: Tower.