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UC Referencing Guide



Author, AA Year of post, 'Title of post', Title of Blog, web log post, Day Month of post, viewed Day Month Year, <http://xxxxx>

Author, AA Year of post, 'Title of post', Title of Discussion, discussion list message, Day Month of post, viewed Day Month Year, <http://xxxxx>


Keirn, B 2009, 'ID error leaves fish at edge of extinction', Wired Science Blog, web log post, 18 November, viewed 20 November 2009, <>

Weidner, D 2007, 'KM reducing in popularity', ActKM, discussion list message, 11 June, viewed 11 June 2007, <>



Title of video, Year of production, online video, Day Month of production, credits, viewed Day Month Year, <http://xxxxx>


Update on new G20 arrangements, 2009, online video, 29 September, created by K. Rudd, viewed 20 November 2009, <>

EndNote Refernce Type

Blog - Blog  

YouTube - Film or Broadcast

Citing a Source Within a Source

When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read.

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell 1999, p.25) stated that '...'

'...' (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen & Kowalski 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F 1999, Phonology, Brooks Cole, San Francisco.

Burton L, Westen D & Kowalski R 2009, Psychology, Wiley, Milton, Qld.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.


Title of work Year of publication, Publisher, Location.


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun 1983, Blackwell, Oxford, England.

No Location / No Publisher / No Year

General guidelines

If the location is not known - substitute n.p. in place of the location.

There are no guidelines for citing works with no publisher in the Style Manual: For Authors, Editors and Printers.  It is acceptable in other styles to use the location and date.  Consult your lecturer before citing material without a publisher.

If the date is not known - substitute an approximate date (c. for circa or ? after date) or n.d. in place of the year.

Format - no date

Author, AA c. year, Title of work, Publisher, Location.

Author, AA n.d., Title of work, Publisher, Location.

Author, AA 1943?, Title of work, Publisher, Location.


Smythe, V c. 2007, Ant colonies: How they communicate, Emu, Canberra.

Browne, JD n.d., Forensic science as a career, Tower, London.