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UC Referencing Guide

Newspaper Article

General guidelines

If authorship is not obvious, provide all the details in the in-text citation.


(The Canberra Times 28 May 2007, p. 15) or The Canberra Times (28 May 2007, p. 15)

If authorship of the article is obvious follow the format below. 


Author, AA Year of publication, 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper, Day Month of publication, pp.xx, viewed Day Month Year, <http://xxxxx>


Darby, A 2002, 'Rarest tiger skin a rugged survivor', Sydney Morning Herald, 20 August, viewed 12 June 2012, <>

Waterford, J 2007, 'Bill of Rights gets it wrong', The Canberra Times, 30 May, p. 11.

Clark, E 2003, 'Enforcement, not shortage of laws, at the heart of spam's virulent growth', The Canberra Times, 13 July, viewed 25 July 2003, <>

EndNote Reference Type

Newspaper Article

Citing a Source Within a Source

When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read.

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell 1999, p.25) stated that '...'

'...' (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen & Kowalski 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F 1999, Phonology, Brooks Cole, San Francisco.

Burton L, Westen D & Kowalski R 2009, Psychology, Wiley, Milton, Qld.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.


Title of work Year of publication, Publisher, Location.


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun 1983, Blackwell, Oxford, England.

No Location / No Publisher / No Year

General guidelines

If the location is not known - substitute n.p. in place of the location.

There are no guidelines for citing works with no publisher in the Style Manual: For Authors, Editors and Printers.  It is acceptable in other styles to use the location and date.  Consult your lecturer before citing material without a publisher.

If the date is not known - substitute an approximate date (c. for circa or ? after date) or n.d. in place of the year.

Format - no date

Author, AA c. year, Title of work, Publisher, Location.

Author, AA n.d., Title of work, Publisher, Location.

Author, AA 1943?, Title of work, Publisher, Location.


Smythe, V c. 2007, Ant colonies: How they communicate, Emu, Canberra.

Browne, JD n.d., Forensic science as a career, Tower, London.