Director, B. B. (Director). (Year of release). Title of work [Description]. Production Company. URL
Jackson, P. (Director). (2003). The Lord of the Rings: The return of the king [Motion picture]. Imagine Films.
Lee, A. (Director). (1995). Sense and sensibility [DVD]. Columbia TriStar Home Video.
If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.
Title of work. (Year of publication). Publisher. DOI or URL
Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. (1983). Blackwell.
If the date is not known use n.d. in place of the year. If you have an approximate date use the abbreviation ca. (circa) and the approximate year.
Author, A. A. (ca. year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL
Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL
Smythe, V. (ca. 2007). Ant colonies: How they communicate. Emu.
Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower.
Secondary source refers to information first reported in another source, the primary source. If it is possible, find the original source and read it, citing the original source. If this is not possible then use the procedure below.
Provide a reference to the secondary source (the source you read) and, in-text, identify the primary source then write "as cited in" the secondary source that you used.
(Author 1 as cited in Author 2, Year)
Author 1 (as cited in Author 2, Year)
Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999) stated that ...
"..." (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen, & Kowalski, 2009, p.63)
Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. Brooks Cole.
Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Wiley.
Film or Broadcast