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UC Referencing Guide


Format - Unpublished thesis

Author, A. A. (Year of creation). Title of work [Type of thesis]. Name of Institution.

Format - Thesis from a database

Author, A. A. (Year of creation). Title of work (Publication number) [Type of thesis, Name of Institution]. Database name.

Format - Thesis from the Web

Author, A. A. (Year of creation). Title of work [Type of thesis, Name of Institution]. Web site. URL


Brown, G. (2001). Towards an in situ technique for investigating the role nutrients play in epilithon growth in an Australian upland stream [Unpublished doctoral thesis]. University of Canberra.

Socha, A. (2010). Students' assessments of instruction: A validity study (Publication No. AAT 1462244) [Masters thesis, Western Carolina University]. Proquest Dissertations and Theses A&I.

McCaffrey, J. (2008). The extent to which clubs are perceived as learning organisations [Doctoral thesis, University of Canberra]. University of Canberra Archive.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.


Title of work. (Year of publication). Publisher. DOI or URL


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. (1983). Blackwell.

No Year

General guidelines

If the date is not known use n.d. in place of the year. If you have an approximate date use the abbreviation ca. (circa) and the approximate year.


Author, A. A. (ca. year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL


Smythe, V. (ca. 2007). Ant colonies: How they communicate. Emu.

Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower.

Citing a Source Within a Source

Secondary source refers to information first reported in another source, the primary source. If it is possible, find the original source and read it, citing the original source.  If this is not possible then use the procedure below.

Provide a reference to the secondary source (the source you read) and, in-text, identify the primary source then write "as cited in" the secondary source that you used.


(Author 1 as cited in Author 2, Year)

Author 1 (as cited in Author 2, Year)

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999) stated that ...

"..." (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen, & Kowalski, 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. Brooks Cole.

Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Wiley.

EndNote Reference Type