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UC Referencing Guide

General Guidelines

A journal is a scholarly or professional periodical available mainly by subscription.  A magazine is a weekly, monthly or sometimes daily periodical more accessible to general readers through libraries, newsstands or offered online.

One Author


Author. Year of publication. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume, no. issue (Month): pages. DOI or URL


Berno, T. 2017. "Social enterprise, sustainability and community in post-earthquake Christchurch: exploring the role of local food systems in building resilience." Journal of Enterprising Communities 11, no. 1: 149-151.

Jackson, A. 2007. "New Approaches to Drug Therapy." Psychology Today and Tomorrow 27, no. 1: 54-9.

Noor, Abdun. 2008. "Ethics, Religion and Good Governance." JOAAG: Journal of Administraion & Governance 3, no. 2: 62-77.

Two to Three Authors


Author 1, Author 2 and Author 3. Year of publication. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume, no. Issue (Month): pages. DOI or URL


Johns, Elizabeth E. and D. J. K. Mewhort. 2009. "Test Sequence Priming in Recognition Memory." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 35, no. 5 (September): 1162-74.

Kramer, Edith and Thomas Bloggs. 2002. "On Quality in Art and Art Therapy." American Journal of Art Therapy 40 (May): 218-22.

Ramalho, Magno, Graciele Da Silva and Luiz Dias. 2009. "Genetic Plant Improvement and Climate Change." Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 9, no. 2: 189-95.

Four to Ten Authors


Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, Author 4, Author 5, Author 6, Author 7, Author 8, Author 9 and Author 10. Year of publication. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume, no. Issue (Month): pages. DOI or URL

Note: List all authors.


Elo, Anna-Liisa, Jenni Ervasti, Eeva Kuosma and Pauliina Mattila. 2008. "Evaluation of an Organizational Stress Management Program in a Municipal Public Works Organization." Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 13: 10-23.

Gluckman, Elaine, Annalisa Ruggeri, Vanderson Rocha, Etienne Baudoux, Michael Boo, Joanne Kurtzberg, Kathy Welte, Cristina Navarrete and Suzanna M. van Walraven. 2011. "Family-Directed Umbilical Cord Blood Banking." Haematologica 96 (November): 1700-1707.

Restouin, A. S. Aresta, T. Prebet, J. Borg, A. Badache and Y. Collette. 2009. "A Simplified, 96-Well-Adapted, ATP Luminescence-based Motility Assay." BioTechniques 47, no. 4: 871-75.

Eleven or More Authors


Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, Author 4, Author 5, Author 6, Author 7 et al. Year of publication. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume, no. Issue (Month Year of publication): pages. DOI or URL.

Note: List the first 7 authors then et al.


Kalnay, E., M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell  et al. 1996. "The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77 No. 3: 437-471.

Magazine Article

General guidelines

A Journal is a scholarly or professional periodical usually only available through subscription.  A journal is normally cited by volume and issue.

A Magazine is a periodical more accessible to the general reader and often available at bookstores and newsagencies.  A magazine is usually cited by month and year only.

If in doubt use journal format if a volume is easily located and use magazine if it is not.


Author. Year of publication. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, Month Day, Year of publication, pages. DOI or URL


Wychick, J. and L. Thompson. 2005. "Fallen for a Scam Lately?" Australia Today, November 24, 2005, 54-60.

Book Review in a Journal


Author. Year of publication. "Title of Review." Review of Title of Book, by Author of Book. Title of Journal Volume, no. Issue (Month): pages. DOI or URL


Marson, Stephen M. 2009. "How Big Should We Be? A Herculean Task Accomplished." Review of Human Body Size and the Laws of Scaling: Physiological, Performance, Growth, Longevity and Ecological Ramification, by T. Samaras. Public Health Nutrition 12: 1299-300.

No Author / Editor

Note: If the author, editor, translator, of the like is unknown, the reference should start with the title.  Works attributed to "Anonymous" should use this as the author.


Title of Work. Year of publication. Edition. Location: Publisher. URL

Anonymous. Year of publication. Title of Work. Edition. Location: Publisher. URL


Anonymous. 1796. On the Prosodies of teh Greek and Latin Languages. London.

Macroeconomics, Prices and Quantities: Essays in Memory of Arthur M. Okun. 1983. Oxford: Blackwell.

No Location / Publisher / Year

If the location is unknown, the abbreviation n.p. takes the place of the location.

If the publisher is unknown, just enter the location and date.

If the year is unknown, the abbreviation n.d. or an estimated year in brackets bakes the place of the year.


Browne, J. D. n.d. Forensic Science as a Career. London: Tower.

Smythe, V. [2007?]. Ant Colonies: How They Communicate. Canberra: Emu.

Citing a Source Within a Source

It is always better to read the original source of a quote, however, you may not always have access to the original source. When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read, include the original author and date in the text and cite the secondary source.

In-text reference

Schwartz 1987 (quoted in Burton, Westen and Kowalski 2009, p.576) stated that "..."


 Burton, Lorelle, Drew Westen and Robin Kowalski. 2009. Psychology. 2nd ed. Milton, Australia: Wiley.

EndNote Reference Type

Journal Article  or  Electronic Article