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UC Referencing Guide

Image, Picture, Figure, Table, Graph or Chart

General guidelines

Hyperlink the title if the item is available online.  If the document being produced is print only add the URL after the final full stop.

For unpublished items do not enter the title in italics.

If there is no title on an item, e.g. photo from the web, give a description of the item in place of the title.

Child playing with dog

Format - Image in another work

Creator AA (Year) 'Title of image' [description of material], in Author AA (if different from Creator), Title of work, Publisher, Location.

Format - Published image

Creator AA (Year) Title or description of image [description of material], Webpage, Name of Website, Exhibition or Gallery, Location of Gallery, accessed Day Month Year.

Format - Unpublished image

Creator AA (Year) Title or description of image [description of material]


Kaplan RS and Norton DP (2004) 'Internal processes deliver value over different time horizons' [graph], in Strategy maps: Converting intangible assets into tangible outcomes, Harvard Business School, Boston.

Monet C (1890) Haystacks, midday [online copy of painting], Claude Monet, National Gallery of Australia website, accessed 18 November 2009.

Wilde J (2018) Steam rises as lava pours into the Pacific Ocean on the Big Island of Hawaii [photograph], Hawaii volcanoes, explained, National Geographic website, accessed 7 May 2021.

Barnes CR (2005) Library at Dawn [unpublished photograph].

EndNote Reference Type

Book Section  or  Electronic Book Section  or  Audiovisual Material (enter the webpage in the Album name)

Citing a Source Within a Source

There are no formal guidelines for citing a source within a source in the Style Manual.  These instructions are based on the guidelines in the 6th edition of the Style Manual.

When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read.

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell 1999:25) stated that '...'

'...' (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen and Kowalski 2009:63)

Reference list

Maxwell F (1999) Phonology, Brooks Cole, San Francisco.

Burton L, Westen D and Kowalski R (2009) Psychology, Wiley, Milton, Qld.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

There are no formal guidelines for referencing an item without an author in the Style Manual.  These instructions are based on the guidelines in the 6th edition of the Style Manual.

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.


Title of work (Year) Publisher, Location.


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun (1983) Blackwell, Oxford, England.