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UC Referencing Guide

What is Chicago Style?

The rules of Chicago Style are detailed in The Chicago Manual of Style.  Chicago Style was first developed in 1906 by the University of Chicago Press to assist in proof-reading publications.  It has now expanded to include writing, publishing, indexing and referencing.

Chicago is both a note style and an author-date style.

General Guidelines

  • Author

First Note - authors are written in full as they appear in the item e.g. John Andrew Wilson, Debbie M. Smith
Subsequent Notes - authors are given as surname only e.g. Wilson  or  Smith
Bibliography - First author is written as Surname, First Names, then all other authors are given as they appear in the item e.g. Wilson, John Andrew, Debbie M. Smith and Patricia Jones

  • Titles - are usually written in italics.  Capitalise the first letter of all significant words. 

This is My Life: Collection of Photos by Andrew Snowden

  • Articles - Article titles are not italicised, are enclosed in double quotation marks, and all significant words are capitalised.  Journal titles are italicised and all significant words are capitalised.

"How We Use Mobile Phones," Social Science Quarterly

  • Publishers - Publishers should be written in a shortened form, omitting words like Publisher, Inc, Co.  Give the location as city name only unless the city is obscure or ambiguous, where you would add a state abbreviation for US cities or country for all other cities.

New York: Python Books

Cambridge, MA: Pearson

Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

North Ryde, Australia: Penguin Books

In-Text Citation

You need to provide an in-text reference if you:

  • use a long direct quotation
  • use a short direct quotation
  • use an indirect quotation by either paraphrasing or summarising.

Note format - Chicago uses Arabic numbers to number references. The numbers are put in superscript e.g.1

Footnotes / Endnotes

Footnotes or endnotes must start with a number corresponding to the number in text.

The first line of the note must be indented.

      13. A. Elo, et al., "Evaluation of an Organizational Stress Management Program in a Municipal Public Works Organization", Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 13, no. 1 (2008): 15.

Notes may contain commentary on the cited source.

Reference List

References are created using these style guidelines.  They are then listed in a reference list or bibliography.  This list is filed alphabetically by author, or by title if there is no author.

Sometimes if you are using the Notes format, you will need to compile a list of all sources used in your assignment/report. Your Reference list must provide full and accurate details, as it is the means by which the reader can follow up your sources.

Reference List / Bibliography entries are formatted with a hanging indent.

Gluckman, E., A. Ruggeri, V. Rocha, E. Baudoux, M. Boo, J. Kurtzberg, K. Welte, C. Navarrete, and S. M. van Walraven. "Family-directed umbilical cord blood banking". Haematologica 96 (2011): 1700-1707.


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