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UC Referencing Guide

Computer Program


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work (Version). [Computer software]. Publisher. URL

Corporate Author. (Year of publication). Title of work (Version). [Computer software]. Publisher. URL


Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2014). Comprehensive meta-analysis (Version 3.3.070). [Computer software]. Biostat.

EndNote X7 for Mac. (2013). [Computer software]. Thomson.


Note: The are no formal guidelines for CR-ROMs in APA 7th.  UC will treat them as Audiovisual Works.

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work [CD-ROM]. Publisher.


Monaco, J. (2000). How to read a film: Multimedia edition [CD-ROM]. Harbor Electronic.

A house for the nation: 100 years of Australia's House of Representatives. (2001). [CD-ROM]. Dept. of the House of Representatives in association with the Swish Group.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.


Title of work. (Year of publication). Publisher. DOI or URL


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. (1983). Blackwell.

No Year

General guidelines

If the date is not known use n.d. in place of the year. If you have an approximate date use the abbreviation ca. (circa) and the approximate year.


Author, A. A. (ca. year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL


Smythe, V. (ca. 2007). Ant colonies: How they communicate. Emu.

Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower.

Citing a Source Within a Source

Secondary source refers to information first reported in another source, the primary source. If it is possible, find the original source and read it, citing the original source.  If this is not possible then use the procedure below.

Provide a reference to the secondary source (the source you read) and, in-text, identify the primary source then write "as cited in" the secondary source that you used.  Include the original year if you know it.


(Author 1, Year of original, as cited in Author 2, Year)

Author 1, Year of original (as cited in Author 2, Year)

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999) stated that ...

"..." (Schwartz, 2006, as cited in Burton et al., 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. Brooks Cole.

Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Wiley.

EndNote Reference Type

Computer Program