University of Canberra
Skip to main content

UC Referencing Guide

General Guidelines

Italicise the volume number but not the issue number or the enclosing parentheses. 

Include the DOI in the reference if it is available. 

Effective March 2017, the recommended DOI display format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016372.  

However, older formats such as doi:10.1037/arc0000014 or http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014 are also acceptable.   

Pick one format to use consistently throughout a reference list.

One Author

Format

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pages. DOI or URL

Examples

Jackson, A. (2007). New approaches to drug therapy. Psychology Today and Tomorrow, 27(1), 54-59.

Berno, T. (2017). Social enterprise, sustainability and community in post-earthquake Christchurch: exploring the role of local food systems in building resilience. Journal of Enterprising Communities, 11(1), 149.

Noor, A. (2008). Ethics, religion and good governance. JOAAG: Journal of Administration & Governance, 3(2), 62-77. http://www.joaag.com/Home_Page.php

Two Authors

Format

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pages. DOI or URL

Examples

Johns, E., & Mewhort, D. (2009). Test sequence priming in recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition35, 1162-1174. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016372

Kramer, E., & Bloggs, T. (2002). On quality in art and art therapy. American Journal of Art Therapy, 40, 218-222.

Wychick, J., & Thompson, L. (2005). Fallen for a scam lately? Australia Today, 54-60.

Three to Twenty Authors

General Guidelines
List all authors and initials up to and including 20 authors.
Format

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., & Author, G. G. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pages. DOI or URL

Example

Elo, A., Ervasti, J., Kuosma, E., & Mattila, P. (2008). Evaluation of an organizational stress management program in a municipal public works organization. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13(1), 10-23.

Ramalho, M., Da Silva, G., & Dias, L. (2009). Genetic plant improvement and climate changes. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology, 9(2), 189-195. http://www.sbmp.org.br/cbab

Restouin, A., Aresta, S., Prebet, T., Borg, J., Badache, A., & Collette, Y. (2009). A Simplified, 96-well-adapted, ATP luminescence-based motility assay. BioTechniques, 47, 871-875. http://www.biotechniques.com/BiotechniquesJournal/

Twenty-one or More Authors

General guidelines

Enter the first 19 authors, type three full stops (ellipsis), then enter the last author.

Format

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., ... Author, Z. Z.  (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pages. DOI or URL

Example

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., ... Joseph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77(3), 437-471. https://doi.org/fg6rf9

Book/Film Review in a Journal

Format

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of review. [Review of the book/film Book/Film title, by B. B. Author]. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pages. DOI or URL

Example

Marson, S. M. (2009). How big should we be? A Herculean task accomplished. [Review of the book Human Body Size and the Laws of Scaling: Physiological, Performance, Growth, Longevity and Ecological Ramification, by T. Samaras]. Public Health Nutrition, 12, 1299-1300.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.

Format

Title of work. (Year of publication). Publisher. DOI or URL

Example

Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. (1983). Blackwell.

No Year

General guidelines

If the date is not known use n.d. in place of the year. If you have an approximate date use the abbreviation ca. (circa) and the approximate year.

Format

Author, A. A. (ca. year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL

Examples

Smythe, V. (ca. 2007). Ant colonies: How they communicate. Emu.

Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower.

Citing a Source Within a Source

Secondary source refers to information first reported in another source, the primary source. If it is possible, find the original source and read it, citing the original source.  If this is not possible then use the procedure below.

Provide a reference to the secondary source (the source you read) and, in-text, identify the primary source then write "as cited in" the secondary source that you used.

Format

(Author 1 as cited in Author 2, Year)

Author 1 (as cited in Author 2, Year)

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999) stated that ...

"..." (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen, & Kowalski, 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. Brooks Cole.

Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Wiley.

EndNote Reference Type

Journal Article

Electronic Article