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UC Referencing Guide

General Guidelines

APA follows guidelines outlined in The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation for parliamentary debates.  Examples outlined below are for Australian Parliamentary Debates (Hansard).  Please consult The Bluebook for other jurisdictions.



Name of Act Year of Act (Jurisdiction) s section number (Country abbreviation, if not evident) URL


Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth) (Austl.)

Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld) s 15 (Austl.).

Case Law

Format - Reported Cases

Name v Name (Year) Volume Reporter abbreviation First page.

Format - Unreported Cases

If case adopted by the court:

Name v Name [Year] Court abbreviation Decision number (Day Month Year of judgement) (Country abbreviation if not evident).


Name v Name (Unreported, Name of Court, Name of Judge, Day Month Year of case) (Country abbreviation if not evident).


Browne v Dunne (Unreported, Supreme Court of Queensland, Bland J, 22 July 1999) (Austl.).

Mace v Murray (1955) 92 CLR 370 (Austl.)

Glass v Commonwealth of Australia [2003] ACTCA 8 (31 March 2003) (Austl.).

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.


Title of work. (Year of publication). Publisher. DOI or URL


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. (1983). Blackwell.

No Year

General guidelines

If the date is not known use n.d. in place of the year. If you have an approximate date use the abbreviation ca. (circa) and the approximate year.


Author, A. A. (ca. year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL


Smythe, V. (ca. 2007). Ant colonies: How they communicate. Emu.

Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower.

Citing a Source Within a Source

Secondary source refers to information first reported in another source, the primary source. If it is possible, find the original source and read it, citing the original source.  If this is not possible then use the procedure below.

Provide a reference to the secondary source (the source you read) and, in-text, identify the primary source then write "as cited in" the secondary source that you used.  Include the original year if you know it.


(Author 1, Year of original, as cited in Author 2, Year)

Author 1, Year of original (as cited in Author 2, Year)

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999) stated that ...

"..." (Schwartz, 2006, as cited in Burton et al., 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. Brooks Cole.

Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Wiley.

EndNote Reference Type

Legislation - Statute 

Case Law - Case