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UC Referencing Guide

Picture, Figure, Graph or Chart

General guidelines

If there is no title on an item, eg. photo from the web, create a title and enter it in square brackets in place of the title. Include the type of material in the title

[Photo of child playing with dog]

Format - Image

Figure number

Figure Title


Note: Figure general notes (if necessary to explain figure). From Title, by Author, Year, Source (URL) 

Examples - Image

Figure 1

Daisy Seed Head

Note: Photograph taken for the Click and Connect Program during Covid lockdown.

Figure 2

Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis, by State and Territory, Australia, 2017-18

Note: Rates have been age-standardised to the 2001 Australian Standard Population as at 30 June 2001.  From Allergic rhinitis, by Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2020, AIHW (

Figure 3


Note: Polished stainless steel sculpture.  From Cones, by B Flugelman, 1982, National Gallery of Australia website (

Format - Reference

Creator, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of image [Description of material]. In A. Author (if different from the creator). Title of work. (pp. x). Publisher. URL

Creator, A. A. (Year of creation). Title of image [Description of material]. Source of the item. URL

Examples - Reference

Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (2004). Internal processes deliver value over different time horizons [Graph]. In Strategy maps: Converting intangible assets into tangible outcomes. Harvard Business School.

Monet, C. (1890). Haystacks, midday [Painting]. National Gallery of Australia.

Jordan, D. (2004). Hawaii's 'gentle' volcano more dangerous than thought [Photograph]. National Geographic.

Barnes, C. (2005). [Library at Dawn] [Unpublished Photograph].

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.


Title of work. (Year of publication). Publisher. DOI or URL


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. (1983). Blackwell.

No Year

General guidelines

If the date is not known use n.d. in place of the year. If you have an approximate date use the abbreviation ca. (circa) and the approximate year.


Author, A. A. (ca. year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL


Smythe, V. (ca. 2007). Ant colonies: How they communicate. Emu.

Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower.

Citing a Source Within a Source

Secondary source refers to information first reported in another source, the primary source. If it is possible, find the original source and read it, citing the original source.  If this is not possible then use the procedure below.

Provide a reference to the secondary source (the source you read) and, in-text, identify the primary source then write "as cited in" the secondary source that you used.  Include the original year if you know it.


(Author 1, Year of original, as cited in Author 2, Year)

Author 1, Year of original (as cited in Author 2, Year)

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999) stated that ...

"..." (Schwartz, 2006, as cited in Burton et al., 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. Brooks Cole.

Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Wiley.

EndNote Reference Type

Online Multimedia  or  Book Section (add your Description of material into the Abbreviation field)