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UC Referencing Guide

Reference List Format

References are listed in numerical order.  The number sits to the left of the text.

[1]       T. Pitman, "The evolution of the student as a customer in Australian higher education: a policy perspective," Aust. Educ. Res., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 345-359, May 2016, doi: 10.1007/s13384-016-0204-9.

[2]       L. Baiazitova, J. Skopalik, V. Cmiel, J. Chmelik, O. Svoboda and I Provaznik, "Modern semi-automatic set-up for testing cell migration with impact for therapy of yocardial infarction," in IFMBE Proc., May 2019, vol. 68, 3 ed., pp. 155-159, doi: 10.1007/978-981-10-9023-3_28.

[3]       J. Chapman, C. Landis and S. Smith, "The development of a library Research Methods course for online graduate students in education," in Information Literacy Programs in the Digital Age: Educating College and University Students Online, A. Daugherty and M. F. Russo, Eds. Chicago, IL, USA: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2007, ch. 3, pp. 13-22.

General Guidelines

  • List names of all authors, up to six names.  If there are more than six names, use the primary author's name followed by et al.
  • Ensure you are using standard abbreviations for journals & periodicals.  See the Web of Science: Journal Title Abbreviations.
  • For any references that cite two months for the same issue, the two months should be separated by a slash (e.g. Jul./Aug.), followed by the year of publication.
  • Both issue number and month/s are included.
  • DOIs are included when provided.  Use DOIs in preference to URLs.

Articles - with DOI


A. Author, "Title of article," Abbreviated Title of Journal, vol. x, no. x, pp. xx-xx, Month Year, doi: xxx.


M. M. Chiampi and L. L. Zilberti, "Induction of electric field in human bodies moving near MRI: An efficient BEM computational procedure," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 2787-2793, Oct. 2011, doi: 10.1109/TBME.2011.2158315.

P. Kopyt et al., "Electric properties of graphene-based conductive layers from DC up to terahertz range," IEEE THz Sci. Technol., to be published. doi:10.1109/TTHZ.2016.2544142.

S. Hasan and E. Curry, "Thingsonomy: Tackling variety in Internet of Things events," IEEE Internet Comput., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 10-18, Mar. 2015, doi: 10.1109/MIC.2015.26.

M. Ramalho, G. Da Silva and L. Dias, "Genetic plant improvement and climate changes," Crop Breed. Appl. Biot., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 189-195, doi: 10.12702/1984-7033.v09n02a12.

Articles - Online without DOI


A. Author, "Title of article," Abbreviated Title of Journal, vol. x, no. x, pp. xx-xx, Month Year. [Online]. Available: URL


W. P. Risk, G. S. Kino and H. J. Shaw, "Fiber-optic frequency shifter using a surface acoustic wave incident at an oblique angle," Opt. Lett., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 115-117, Feb. 1986. [Online]. Available:

A Restouin, S. Aresta, T. Prebet, J. Borg, A. Badache and Y. Collette, "A simplified, 96-well-adapted, ATP luminescence-based motility assay," BioTechniques, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 189-195, Oct. 2009. [Online]. Available:

Article with Article Number


These have no page number.


A. Author, "Title of article," Abbreviated Title of Journal, vol. x, no. x, Month Year, Art. no. x. DOI.


J. Zhang and N. Tansu, "Optical gain and laser characteristics of InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrates," IEEE Photon. J., vol. 5, no. 2, Apr. 2013, Art. no. 2600111.

R. Shi, "Quantum bloom filter and its applications," IEEE Trans. Quantum Eng., vol. 2, Jan. 2021, Art. no. 2100411, doi: 10.1109/TQE.2021.3054623.

Virtual Journal Articles - IEEE only


E. Editor, Ed., "Title of Issue," in Title of Journal, Month Year. [Online]. Available: URL


T. Robertson, Ed., "RFIC Virtual Journal - Issue 6," in IEEE RFIC Virtual Journal, Oct. 2014. [Online]. Available: