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UC Referencing Guide

Reference List Format

References are listed in numerical order.  The number sits to the left of the text.

[1]       T. Pitman, "The evolution of the student as a customer in Australian higher education: a policy perspective," Aust. Educ. Res., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 345-359, May 2016, doi: 10.1007/s13384-016-0204-9.

[2]       L. Baiazitova, J. Skopalik, V. Cmiel, J. Chmelik, O. Svoboda and I Provaznik, "Modern semi-automatic set-up for testing cell migration with impact for therapy of yocardial infarction," in IFMBE Proc., May 2019, vol. 68, 3 ed., pp. 155-159, doi: 10.1007/978-981-10-9023-3_28.

[3]       J. Chapman, C. Landis and S. Smith, "The development of a library Research Methods course for online graduate students in education," in Information Literacy Programs in the Digital Age: Educating College and University Students Online, A. Daugherty and M. F. Russo, Eds. Chicago, IL, USA: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2007, ch. 3, pp. 13-22.

Patent - Print


Use issue date if several dates are given.


A. Author, "Title of patent," U.S. Patent xxx, Month Day, Year.

A. Author, "Title of patent," Country Patent xxx, Month Day, Year.

A. Author, "Title of patent," Country Patent Appl. xxx, Month Day, Year.


J. P. Wilkinson, "Nonlinear resonant circuit devices," U.S. Patent 3 624 125, Jul. 16, 1990.

S. P. Voinigescu et al., Direct m-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) operating in saturated power mode," U.S. Patent Appl. 2010013726A1, Jan. 20, 2011.

G. Rajaram, "Improved advertising with audio content," Australia Patent 2006297131 B2, Sep. 28, 2006.

Patent - Online


Name of the invention, by inventor's name. (Year, Month Day). Country Patent Number [Online]. Available: URL or site: path: file


Musical toothbrush with adjustable neck and mirror, by L. M. R. Brooks. (1992, May 19). U.S. Patent D 326 189 [Online]. Available: NEXIS Library: LEXPAT File: Design

Screwless clip mounted computer drive, by D. Williams. (2005, Apr. 26). U.S. Patent 6,885,550 [Online]. Available:,885,550

Mobile phone cover with manually adjustable stand, by C. Dahl. (2011, Dec. 22). Australia Patent Appl. 2011905080 [Online]. Available: