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UC Referencing Guide

Personal Communication

General guidelines

Communications that are not housed in a library or archive should be cited in-text only.

... supported by survey results (2007 email from M. Coleman to me; unreferenced).

Format - Letter

Number. Author (full name). Letter to: Recipient. Year Month Day. Pages. Note.


4. Allport, Gordon W. Letters to: various recipients. 1930-1967. Located in: Box HUG 4118.10, Gordon W. Allport papers, Harvard University Archives, Cambridge, MA.

EndNote Reference Type

Personal Communication

Citing a Source Within a Source

When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read.

In-text reference

Lilly as cited in Maxwell (3) stated that '...'

Burton (5) quoted Schwartz ...


3. Maxwell F. Phonology. San Franisco: Brooks Cole; 1999.

5. Burton L, Westen D, Kowalski R. Psychology. Milton (Australia): Wiley; 2009.

No Author / Editor

If no author or editor is present, start your reference with the Title of the item.


5. Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. Oxford: Blackwell; 1983.

No Location / No Publisher / No Year

If no location is present substitute an inferred place [Chicago?] or the phrase [place unknown].

If no publisher is present substitute the phrase [publisher unknown].

If no year is present substitute an approximate date [1976?] or the phrase [date unknown].


7. Smythe V. Ant colonies: how they communicate. Canberra: Emu Press; [2007?].

12. Browne JD. Forensic science as a career. London: Tower Publishing; [date unknown].

16. Hawaii [map on the Internet]. [place, publisher, date unknown] [cited 2012 Jul 20]. Available from: