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UC Referencing Guide

General Guidelines

Write the title as it appears in film information.  Include punctuation marks and any intentional misspelling.

If the film is part of a series, include the number in the same format as in the original title of the film.  e.g. 3, three, III

For In-Text Citations:

Enter the name of the item in italics and the production year in parentheses or in the text.

Ride like a girl (2019) tells the story of jockey Michelle Payne.

They released The man from Snowy River II in 1988.

Film / DVD / Videorecording


Director A (director) or Producer A (producer) (Year) Title of film [motion picture], Name of Studio or Publisher, Place of Production.


Jackson P (director) (2003) The Lord of the Rings: the return of the king [motion picture], Imagine Films, Auckland.

Lee A (1995) Sense and sensibility [motion picture], Columbia TriStar Home Video, Australia.

Jury WF (producer) (1916) Battle of the Somme [motion picture], British Topical Committee for War Films, London, UK.

EndNote Reference Type

Film or Broadcast

Citing a Source Within a Source

There are no formal guidelines for citing a source within a source in the Style Manual.  These instructions are based on the guidelines in the 6th edition of the Style Manual.

When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read.

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell 1999:25) stated that '...'

'...' (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen and Kowalski 2009:63)

Reference list

Maxwell F (1999) Phonology, Brooks Cole, San Francisco.

Burton L, Westen D and Kowalski R (2009) Psychology, Wiley, Milton, Qld.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

There are no formal guidelines for referencing an item without an author in the Style Manual.  These instructions are based on the guidelines in the 6th edition of the Style Manual.

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.


Title of work (Year) Publisher, Location.


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun (1983) Blackwell, Oxford, England.

No Location / No Publisher / No Year

General guidelines

The place of publication can be omitted if no place is known.

There are no guidelines for citing works with no publisher in the Style Manual. Consult your lecturer before citing material without a publisher.

If the date is not known - substitute n.d. in place of the year.

Format - no date

Author AA (n.d.) Title of work, Publisher, Location.


Browne JD (n.d.) Forensic science as a career, Tower, London.