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UC Referencing Guide

General guidelines

In-text citations are the references provided within your work that refer to other works you have used to support your arguments, etc. In this Vancouver style guide, the in-text citation system used is the citation-sequence system. In this system:

  • Number the references in the order they first appear in your text, tables or figures. Use Arabic numbers. Assign a number even if the author(s) is named in the sentence/text.
  • Place the numbers in round brackets or in superscript. They can be placed before punctuation or after punctuation.
  • Re-use the number if you mention/cite that particular reference again.
  • If multiple references are cited at a given place, use a hyphen to join the first and last inclusive numbers e.g. (2-5), and a comma to separate non-inclusive numbers e.g.(7,10,12)
Note

In the Reference List at the end of your paper, the references are listed in numerical order.

Format and Examples - Numeric (Numbers in Brackets)

Format - no direct quote

(Number)

Example

The conclusion reached in a recent study (1) was that ...

 

Format - direct quote, less than 30 words

'...' (Number, p. page)

Author (Number, p. page) '...'

Note

The quote is entered in single quotation marks.

Examples

An interesting view was expressed that 'the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned' (1, p. 117).

An interesting view was expressed by Cochrane (1, p. 117) that 'the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned'.

 

Format - direct quote, 30 words and more

Text ... Author (Number, p. page)

     Quote

Text

or

Text

     Quote (Number, p. page)

Note

Quotation marks are not used in this format.  The entire quote must be indented and single spaced.

Example

Much has been written about acute care. Finkelman (2, p. 184-5), for example, points out that:

There are many changes in acute care services occurring almost daily, and due to the increasing use of outpatient surgery, surgical services have experienced major changes. Hospitals are increasing the size of their outpatient or ambulatory surgery departments and adjusting to the need of moving patients into and out of surgical service in 1 day or even a few hours.

Recently, this trend has been seen in some Australian hospitals and research here ...

Format and Examples - Superscript

Format - no direct quote

Authornumber

Examples

Cochrane1 concluded that ...

 

Format - direct quote, fewer than 30 words

'...'number (p. page)

Authornumber (p. page) '...'

Note

The quote is entered in single quotation marks.

Examples

An interesting view was expressed that 'the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned'1 (p.117)

An interesting view was expressed by Cochrane1 (p.117) that 'the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned'.

 

Format - direct quote, more that 30 words

Text ... Authornumber (p. page)

Quote

Text

or

Text

Quote number

Note

Quotation marks are not used in this format.  The entire quote must be indented and single spaced.

Example

Much has been written about acute care. Finkelman2 (p. 184), for example, points out that:

There are many changes in acute care services occurring almost daily, and due to the increasing use of outpatient surgery, surgical services have experienced major changes. Hospitals are increasing the size of their outpatient or ambulatory surgery departments and adjusting to the need of moving patients into and out of surgical service in 1 day or even a few hours.

Recently, this trend has been seen in some Australian hospitals and research here ...