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UC Referencing Guide

General Guidelines

See the tab 'In-text Citations' to see the correct format for citing music in-text.

Music can be:

  • songs
  • operas
  • ballets
  • dances
  • chamber music
  • soundtracks
  • electronic music

Music can refer to:

  • printed music
  • recorded music
  • electronic versions



Creator AA (Year) Title of individual item, long work or compilation [medium], Name of Publisher.

Creator AA (Year) 'Title of song' [medium], Title of compilation or album, Name of Publisher.


Brown, B (2009) Big bad bushranger [songbook], Omnibus Books.

Davis B and Akst H (1978) Baby face [sheet music], B&G Akst Publishing and Benny Davis Music.

Fanning B (2005) Wish you well [MP3], Apple iTunes.

Kelly P (1997) 'From little things big things grow' [song] Songs from the south: Paul Kelly's greatest hits, Mushroom Records.

Split Enz (1982) 'Dirty creature' [song], Time and Tide, Mushroom Records.

Bach JS (2010) The Brandenburg concertos: concertos BWV 1042 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St Martin in the Fields], Decca.

EndNote Reference Type

Online Multimedia or Audiovisual Material

Citing a Source Within a Source

There are no formal guidelines for citing a source within a source in the Style Manual.  These instructions are based on the guidelines in the 6th edition of the Style Manual.

When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read.

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell 1999:25) stated that '...'

'...' (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen and Kowalski 2009:63)

Reference list

Maxwell F (1999) Phonology, Brooks Cole, San Francisco.

Burton L, Westen D and Kowalski R (2009) Psychology, Wiley, Milton, Qld.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

There are no formal guidelines for referencing an item without an author in the Style Manual.  These instructions are based on the guidelines in the 6th edition of the Style Manual.

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.


Title of work (Year) Publisher, Location.


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun (1983) Blackwell, Oxford, England.

No Location / No Publisher / No Year

General guidelines

The place of publication can be omitted if no place is known.

There are no guidelines for citing works with no publisher in the Style Manual. Consult your lecturer before citing material without a publisher.

If the date is not known - substitute n.d. in place of the year.

Format - no date

Author AA (n.d.) Title of work, Publisher, Location.


Browne JD (n.d.) Forensic science as a career, Tower, London.