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UC Referencing Guide

In-Text Citations

General guidelines

Note: In-text citations for specific formats are listed below.

Note: If there is no author include the title and year of publication. If there is no date display as n.d.

Note: To enter pages:

  • single page - p. 25
  • multiple pages - pp. 25-26
  • discontinuous pages pp. 25, 31

If there are no page numbers you need to provide another means of locating the quoted passage

  • heading or section name - Osteoporosis, section
  • paragraph number (count the paragraphs if they are not numbered) - para. 13
  • combination of above - Osteoporosis, section, para. 13
  • time stamp for audio-visual works - 00:13:43

In-text citations are entered in 2 ways:

  • Parenthetical citation or 'Information prominent' (the author's name is within the round brackets):

(Author, Year) 

The conclusion reached in a recent study (Cochrane, 2007) was that . . .

  • Narrative citation or 'Author prominent' (the author's name is outside the round brackets):

Author (Year)

Cochrane (2007) concluded that . . .


Format - no direct quote

(Author, Year)

Author (Year)


The conclusion reached in a recent study (Cochrane, 2007) was that . . .

Cochrane (2007) concluded that . . .


Format - direct quote, fewer than 40 words

". . ." (Author, Year, p. Page)

Author (Year) ". . ." (pp. Pages)


The quote is entered in double quotation marks.


An interesting view was expressed that "the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned" (Cochrane, 2007, p. 117).

An interesting view was expressed by Cochrane (2007) that "the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned" (p. 117).


Format - direct quote, more that 40 words

Text . . . Author (Year)

Quote (p. Page)




Quote (Author, Year, pp. Pages)


Quotation marks are not used in this format. The entire quote must be indented by 0.5 in. and double spaced.


Much has been written about acute care. Finkelman (2006), for example, points out that:

There are many changes in acute care services occurring almost daily, and due to the increasing use of outpatient surgery, surgical services have experienced major changes. Hospitals are increasing the size of their outpatient or ambulatory surgery departments and adjusting to the need of moving patients into and out of surgical service in 1 day or even a few hours. (p. 184)

Recently, this trend has been seen in some Australian hospitals and research here . . .

Repeated Citations

Include the author(s) and year for every parenthetical in-text citation.

Do not repeat the year for narrative in-text citations the second and subsequent times they appear in a single paragraph.  Each new paragraph must start with a full in-text citation.

If you are citing multiple works by the same author(s) with different years, you must always include the year.

One Author


(Author, Year)

Author (Year)


The conclusion reached in a recent study (Cochrane, 2007) was that . . .

Cochrane (2007) concluded that . . .

Two Authors


Cite both names every time the reference occurs in text.


(Author & Author, Year)

Author and Author (Year)


(Carr & Kemmis, 2005)

Littlejohn and Foss (2005)

Three or More Authors

Note: For a work with three or more authors, include only the first author and "et al" in all citations - unless this creates ambiguity.

(Author 1 et al., Year)

Author 1 et al. (Year)


(Jones et al., 2015)

Jones et al. (2015)

Note for ambiguous citations

If citing two or more items with different authors which shorten to the same author and year, then add extra authors until they are unique. Note the comma before et al.

Example for ambiguous citations

Jones, P, Andrews, J, Peters, S, Peterson, F, Jung, R. and Taylor, G 2015

Jones, P, Smith, T, Edwards, W and Williams, D 2015

(Jones, Andrews, et al., 2015)

(Jones, Smith, et al., 2015)

Same Author, Same Year

General guidelines

If the same author or group of authors have multiple works published in the same year, identify each work by the addition of a lowercase letter after the year.  Year-letter is used in the reference list and every citation.


(Fullan, 1996a)

(Fullan, 1996b)

Corporate Author / Organisation

Group Author with abbreviation


The full corporate author is written out in the first citation. If the abbreviation of the corporate author is familiar or readily understandable then it can be entered after the corporate author in the first occurrence and used in subsequent occurrences.

Format - First Citation

(Corporate author [abbreviation], Year)

Corporate author [abbreviation] (Year)

Format - Subsequent Citations

(Abbreviation, Year)

Abbreviation (Year)


(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], 2009)

Subsequent occurrences (AIHW, 2009)

Group author without abbreviation

Format - First Citation

(Corporate author, Year)

Corporate author (Year)


(University of Canberra, 2018)

University of Canberra (2018)

Two or More Works Cited Together

General guidelines

Order the citations within the round brackets in alphabetical order as they would appear in the reference list, separated by a semicolon.  Works by the same author, place the citations in order of publication date, giving the author once then each citation date.


(Carr & Kemmis, 1986; Dick, 2000; Kemmis & McTaggart, 1988; MacIsaac, 1995)

(Carr & Kemmis, 1986; MacIsaac, 1995; 2001) 

Citing a Source Within a Source

Secondary source refers to information first reported in another source, the primary source. If it is possible, find the original source and read it, citing the original source.  If this is not possible then use the procedure below.

Provide a reference to the secondary source (the source you read) and, in-text, identify the primary source then write "as cited in" the secondary source that you used.  Include the original year if you know it.


(Author 1, Year of original, as cited in Author 2, Year)

Author 1, Year of original (as cited in Author 2, Year)

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999) stated that ...

"..." (Schwartz, 2006, as cited in Burton et al., 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. Brooks Cole.

Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Wiley.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If no author is present use the title in place of the author. The title may be shortened to the first few words if it is a long title. Capitalize all major words in the title as in title case.

Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter or a web page.

Italicise the title of a periodical, a book, a brochure or a report.

If the author is given as anonymous then enter this in place of the author.


(Title, Year)

Title (Year)

(Anonymous, Year)


(Macroeconomics, Prices and Quantities, 1983)

"Internet Pioneer to Oversee Network Redesign" (2007)

("Tunguska Event," 2012)

No Year

General guidelines

If no date of publication is available use n.d. in place of the year. If you have an estimated date use the abbreviation ca. (circa) and the estimated date. For works that have been accepted for publication but have not yet been published use "in press".  For unpublished, informally published or in-progress works use the year the item was produced.


(Author, ca. Year)

(Author, n.d.)

Author (in press)


Smythe (ca. 2007)

(Browne, n.d.)

Special Cases

Multivolume sets or collections or works produced over several years

Enter a range of years to cover the set or collection.

(Allport, 1930-1967)

Music recordings

For a classical work record the composer as the author.  For all other works the author is the recording artist or group.

For classical works include the year of original composition as well as the recording year. 

(Beethoven, 1804/2012)

(Beyonce, 2016)

Reprinted material

Include the original and reprint date in the citation.

(Hade, 2002/2005)

Personal communication

Include the words personal communication and the full date of the communication.

(personal communication, July 11, 2007)


Include the name and year of the Act.

(Anti-Discrimination Act, 1991)

Case law

Give the name of the case in italics and the year of the decision.

(Mace v. Murray, 1955)


Give the inventor and the year.

(Rajaram, 2011)