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UC Referencing Guide

Music - Print

Note: There are no formal guidelines for print music in APA 7th ed.  UC will treat these as Visual Works.

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work [Format]. Publisher. URL


Brown, B. (2009). Big bad bushranger [Songbook]. Omnibus.

Davis, B. & Akst, H. (1978). Baby face [Sheet music]. B&G Akst and Benny Davis Music.

Recorded Music

General guidelines

For classical works enter the composer as the author and note in square brackets the individual or group who recorded the version you are citing. Provide the publication date of the item you are citing and the year of the original composition in parentheses at the end of the reference. For the in-text citation include the original publication date as well as the recording date. e.g. (Bach, 1721/2010)

Include the URL in the reference if that is the only location for retrieval of the music.


Artist, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work [Type of recording]. Publisher.

Artist, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of track [Type of recording]. On Title of work. Publisher.

Artist, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work [Type of recording]. Publisher. URL

Composer, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work [Type of work and individual/group recording this copy]. Publisher. (Original work published Year)


Bach, J. S. (2010). The Brandenburg concertos: Concertos BWV 1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St Martin in the Fields]. Decca. (Original work published 1721)

Fanning, B. (2005). Wish you well [MP3]. Dew Process.

Kelly, P. (1997). From little things big things grow [Song]. On Songs from the south: Paul Kelly's greatest hits. Mushroom Records.

Split Enz. (1982). Dirty Creature [Song]. On Time and Tide. Mushroom Records.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.


Title of work. (Year of publication). Publisher. DOI or URL


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. (1983). Blackwell.

No Year

General guidelines

If the date is not known use n.d. in place of the year. If you have an approximate date use the abbreviation ca. (circa) and the approximate year.


Author, A. A. (ca. year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL


Smythe, V. (ca. 2007). Ant colonies: How they communicate. Emu.

Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower.

Citing a Source Within a Source

Secondary source refers to information first reported in another source, the primary source. If it is possible, find the original source and read it, citing the original source.  If this is not possible then use the procedure below.

Provide a reference to the secondary source (the source you read) and, in-text, identify the primary source then write "as cited in" the secondary source that you used.  Include the original year if you know it.


(Author 1, Year of original, as cited in Author 2, Year)

Author 1, Year of original (as cited in Author 2, Year)

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999) stated that ...

"..." (Schwartz, 2006, as cited in Burton et al., 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. Brooks Cole.

Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Wiley.

EndNote Reference Type

Music - Print - Book

Recorded Music - Audiovisual Material or Online Multimedia  or  Music