University of Canberra
Skip to main content

UC Referencing Guide

Speech

General guidelines

The preferred method for citing a speech is to find a transcript or recording of the speech and cite this in your document using the rules for citing books, articles or recordings. There are no formal guidelines for live speeches in APA 7th ed.  UC is using the guidelines for Conference Paper Presentations.

Format

Speaker, A. A. (Year, Month Day of speech). Title of speech [Speech]. Event, Location.

Examples

Hodson, A. (2000, November 11). Peace in today's world [Speech]. Remembrance Day Australian Veterans Memorial Service, Lightning Ridge, NSW.

Clark, H. (2007, April 25). Prime Minister's 2007 Anzac Day message [Speech]. Anzac Day 2007, New Zealand.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.

Format

Title of work. (Year of publication). Publisher. DOI or URL

Example

Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. (1983). Blackwell.

No Year

General guidelines

If the date is not known use n.d. in place of the year. If you have an approximate date use the abbreviation ca. (circa) and the approximate year.

Format

Author, A. A. (ca. year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL

Examples

Smythe, V. (ca. 2007). Ant colonies: How they communicate. Emu.

Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower.

Citing a Source Within a Source

Secondary source refers to information first reported in another source, the primary source. If it is possible, find the original source and read it, citing the original source.  If this is not possible then use the procedure below.

Provide a reference to the secondary source (the source you read) and, in-text, identify the primary source then write "as cited in" the secondary source that you used.

Format

(Author 1 as cited in Author 2, Year)

Author 1 (as cited in Author 2, Year)

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999) stated that ...

"..." (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen, & Kowalski, 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. Brooks Cole.

Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Wiley.

EndNote Reference Type

Conference Paper

Enter the Event and Location in Conference Name and Conference Location.