University of Canberra
Skip to Main Content

UC Referencing Guide

In-Text Citations

General guidelines for in-text citations

(In-text citations for specific formats are listed below)

In-text citations are entered in 2 ways:

  • 'Information prominent' (the author's name is within the parentheses):

 The conclusion reached in a recent study (Cochrane 2007) was that ...

  • 'Author prominent' (the author's name is outside the parentheses):

Cochrane (2007) concluded that ...


Format - no direct quote
a) No page number

(Author Year)

Author (Year)


The conclusion reached in a recent study (Cochrane 2007) was that ...

Cochrane (2007) concluded that ...

Include page numbers in the in-text citation only when the work has page numbers and you are including a direct quote.

Format - direct quote, fewer than 30 words

'...' (Author Year:Page)

Author (Year:Page) '...'


The quote is entered in single quotation marks.


An interesting view was expressed that 'the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned' (Cochrane 2007:117).

An interesting view was expressed by Cochrane (2007:117) that 'the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned'.


Format - direct quote, more than 30 words

Text ... Author (Year:Page)




   Quote (Author, Year:Page)


Quotation marks are not used in this format. The entire quote must be indented and single spaced.  The quote is sometimes set in a smaller font size or a different font.


Much has been written about acute care. Finkelman (2006:184-5), for example, points out that:

There are many changes in acute care services occurring almost daily, and due to the increasing use of outpatient surgery, surgical services have experienced major changes. Hospitals are increasing the size of their outpatient or ambulatory surgery departments and adjusting to the need of moving patients into and out of surgical service in 1 day or even a few hours.

Recently, this trend has been seen in some Australian hospitals and research here ...

One Author


(Author Year)

Author (Year)


The conclusion reached in a recent study (Cochrane 2007) was that ...

Cochrane (2007) concluded that ...

Two Authors


(Author and Author Year)

Author and Author (Year)


Littlejohn and Foss (2005)

(Carr and Kemmis 1986)


Cite all names every time the reference occurs in text.

Three or More Authors


(Author 1 et al. Year)

Author 1 et al. (Year)


(Duffy et al. 2001)

Green et al. (2009)


Use this format in first and subsequent occurrences.

If citing two or more books with different authors which shorten to the same author and year, then add extra authors until they are unique.


Green PF, Andrews SD, Peterson GH & Edwards TW 2010

Green SL, Snowden PY, Robertson BL & Moss V 2010

In-text citations become:

(Green, Andrews et al. 2010)

(Green, Snowden et al. 2010)

Same Author, Same Year

General guidelines

If the same author or group of authors have multiple works published in the same year, identify each work by adding the suffixes a, b, c, d after the year.


(Fullan 1996a)

(Fullan 1996b)

Corporate Author / Organisation


(Corporate author Year)

Corporate author (Year)


Use the shortened form of the organisation name in the In-Text Citation.  Use the shortened form in the Reference List, followed by the full name.  The user can easily find the reference but can also see the organisation's full name.


In the text: The AIHW (2009) has surveyed ...

In the reference: AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) (2009)...

Two or More Works Cited Together

General guidelines

When citing multiple works in the same citation use semicolons between each citation and enclose all the citations in one set of parentheses.


(Carr & Kemmis 1986; MacIsaac 1995; Dick 2000; Kemmis & McTaggart 1988)

Citing a Source Within a Source

There are no formal guidelines for citing a source within a source in the Style Manual.  These instructions are based on the guidelines in the 6th edition of the Style Manual.

When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read.

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell 1999:25) stated that '...'

'...' (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen and Kowalski 2009:63)

Reference list

Maxwell F (1999) Phonology, Brooks Cole, San Francisco.

Burton L, Westen D and Kowalski R (2009) Psychology, Wiley, Milton, Qld.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines - Blog Posts, Newspapers and Magazine Articles

Use the name of the blog, newspaper or magazine in place of the author.


In-text: (Facebook for Business 2019)

Reference: Facebook for Business (21 April 2019) 'Capturing attention in feed: the science behind effective video creative', Facebook for Business, accessed 18 November 2019.

In-text: (Ozculture Newsletter 2009)

Reference: Ozculture Newsletter (November 2009) 'Australians on the Western Front', Ozculture Newsletter, accessed 5 July 2012.

General guidelines - all other material

There are no formal guidelines for citing items without an author in the Style Manual.  These instructions are based on the guidelines in the 6th edition of the Style Manual.

Use the Title in place of the author


(Macroeconomics, prices and quantities 1983)

No Year

If no date of publication is available use n.d. in place of the year.


(Author n.d.)

Author (n.d.)


Chen (n.d.)

(Browne n.d.)

Special Cases

Reports Known by a Short Title

Sometimes reports are better known by a short title.  Use this short title in-text.

In the Reference List use the short title followed by en dash and the full source.

In-text: The Gonski report (2011) suggests that...

Reference: Gonski report - Gonski D, Boston K, Greiner K, Laurence C, Slacles B and Tannock P (2011) Review of funding for schooling: final report, Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, Australian Government, accessed 11 February 2020.

Personal communication

Include the words personal communication, and the full date of the communication. Never include email addresses in your citation.

M Coleman (personal communication, 11 July 2007)

Social media posts

Cite social media posts using the author and year as you would for other citations but ensure that the reader knows that it is a social media post.

In a recent Facebook post, Services Australia (2020)...

Legislation - Australian

Capitalise the title of the Act and include 'A', 'An' or 'The' if they are part of the title.  Use italics for the first mention of the Act, then roman type for any subsequent mentions of the Act.  Include the year of the legislation with the title of the Act.  Indicate the jurisdiction of the Act in either the writing or the citation.

Use the following abbreviations for each jurisdiction:

  • Cth (the Commonwealth)
  • ACT (Australian Capital Territory)
  • NT (Northern Territory)
  • NSW (New South Wales)
  • Qld (Queensland)
  • SA (South Australia)
  • Tas (Tasmania)
  • Vic (Victoria)
  • WA (Western Australia)

If you are referring to part of the legislation you can include the section, subsection or paragraph information.  This is the list of abbreviations for each part of the legislation:

  • Pt – Part
  • Div – Division
  • Subdiv – Subdivision
  • s – section
  • subs – subsection
  • subss – subsections
  • para – paragraph
  • subpara – subparagraph

Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Cth)

Copyright Act 1968, s 4

Crimes Act 1914, subpara 2A(a)(iv)

Legislation - Foreign

Do not use italics for foreign legislation.  Use the jurisdiction in the text or add an abbreviation to indicate the jurisdiction.


Digital Economy Act 2017 (UK)

Arms Legislation Act 2019 (NZ)


Use the same structure as Legislation but the title is not entered in italics.

Case law

Give the name of the case in italics and include the abbreviated title, if available, in italics and parentheses.

Mace v Murray

Commonwealth v Tasmania (Tasmanian Dam Case)

Case Law - Special

For special cases such as Commonwealth tribunal decisions, Tax Commissioner rulings, etc see the Style Manual online.

Films, Television, Radio Programs

Enter the name of the item in italics and the production year in parentheses or in the text.

Ride like a girl (2019) tells the story of jockey Michelle Payne.

They released The man from Snowy River II in 1988.


Enter musical works in-text by their name in single quotation marks.

The town meeting ended with the school children singing 'The road to Gundagai'.

Many people know Beethoven's piano sonata no 14 'Quasi una fantasia' as the 'Moolight sonata'.

For compositions with no given name do not include the quotation marks.

Telemann's suite in D major, was the first piece our chamber group performed in public.

Use italics for albums or entire works consisting of several shorter pieces.

Many people know Australian tenor David Hobson from Le Boheme and The pirates of Penzance.

Stonefield's second album, As above, so below, is their most popular chart release.

If you mention lyrics from a song, enter the author, name of the song and year of publication in parentheses.

'If it calls you, embrace it / If it haunts you, face it' - we can all learn from that (Tame Impala, 'Lost in yesterday' 2020).


Enter the name of the episode in single quotation marks.  Enter the name of the series in italics.

A local podcast in this popular genre is Australian true crime, hosted by...

'Evil crows, bird funerals, swooping magpies' is an episode from Triple J's Science with Dr Karl podcast.