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UC Referencing Guide

General Guidelines

E-journals are cited the same way as that of a journal appearing in print with the following exceptions:

  • Type of medium - after the journal title, use the word "Internet" in square brackets. Content type can also be added e.g. "serial on the Internet", but this is optional.
  • Date of update/revision and date of citation - after the date of publication, add the date of update/revision if required and the date of citation in square brackets.
  • Extent - give the pagination e.g. 62-9, or describe it in the best way possible e.g. [about 3 screens]
  • URL - provide the URL (http://xxxxx) or other electronic address of the item.



Number. Author AA. Title of article. Title of Journal [type of medium]. Year Month Day of publication [cited Year Month Day];volume(issue):pages. Available from database: http://xxxxx DOI:xxxxx

Number. Author AA. Title of article. Title of Journal [type of medium]. Year Month Day of publication [cited Year Month Day];volume(issue):pages. Available from: http://xxxxx


1. Johns E, Mewhort D. Test sequence priming in recognition memory. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn [Internet]. 2009 Sep [cited 2012 Nov 13];35(5):1162-74. Available from PsycArticles: DOI:10.1037/a0016372

2. Noor A. Ethics, religion and good governance. JOAAG [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2012 Nov 13];3(2):62-77. Available from:

3. Ramalho M, Da Silva G, Dias L. Genetic plant improvement and climate changes. Crop Breed Appl Biot [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2012 Oct 8];9(2):189-95. Available from:

4. Restouin A, Aresta S, Prebet T, Borg A, Badache A, Collette Y. A simplified, 96-well-adapted, ATP luminescence-based motility assay. BioTechniques [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2012 Jul 3];47(4):871-5. Available from:


See Journal Article - Print for all forms of journal articles.

Relevant Chapter in Citing Medicine

EndNote Reference Type

Electronic Article

Citing a Source Within a Source

When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read.

In-text reference

Lilly as cited in Maxwell (3) stated that '...'

Burton (5) quoted Schwartz ...


3. Maxwell F. Phonology. San Franisco: Brooks Cole; 1999.

5. Burton L, Westen D, Kowalski R. Psychology. Milton (Australia): Wiley; 2009.

No Author / Editor

If no author or editor is present, start your reference with the Title of the item.


5. Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. Oxford: Blackwell; 1983.

No Location / No Publisher / No Year

If no location is present substitute an inferred place [Chicago?] or the phrase [place unknown].

If no publisher is present substitute the phrase [publisher unknown].

If no year is present substitute an approximate date [1976?] or the phrase [date unknown].


7. Smythe V. Ant colonies: how they communicate. Canberra: Emu Press; [2007?].

12. Browne JD. Forensic science as a career. London: Tower Publishing; [date unknown].

16. Hawaii [map on the Internet]. [place, publisher, date unknown] [cited 2012 Jul 20]. Available from: