For social media posts, if there is no title include the first 10 words of the content followed by an ellipsis.
Hyperlink the title to the post. If the document being produced is in print only then enter the URL after the last full stop.
Author or Name of Page (Day Month Year) 'Title or first 10 words of Post' [type of post], Page of Post, accessed Day Month Year.
CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) (21 January 2020) 'A brain transplant for one of Australia's top telescopes' [online forum post], Reddit, accessed 4 February 2020.
Duncan Henley (13 November 2020) 'Channelling an autumn palette' [Instagram post], accessed 16 April 2021.
Kevin Rudd and Labor (24 October 2009) 'Australian civilian corps to help in crises' [Facebook update], Kevin Rudd and Labor, accessed 20 November 2009.
White B (21 June 2018) 'I treasure every minute we spent together' [Tweet], Betty White, accessed 16 April 2021.
Zeitz MOCAA (26 November 2018) 'Grade 6 learners from Parkfields Primary School in Hanover Park visited the museum for a tour and workshop hosted by...' [Instagram post], Zeitz MOCAA, accessed 16 April 2021.
There are no formal guidelines for citing a source within a source in the Style Manual. These instructions are based on the guidelines in the 6th edition of the Style Manual.
When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read.
Lilly (as cited in Maxwell 1999:25) stated that '...'
'...' (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen and Kowalski 2009:63)
Maxwell F (1999) Phonology, Brooks Cole, San Francisco.
Burton L, Westen D and Kowalski R (2009) Psychology, Wiley, Milton, Qld.
There are no formal guidelines for referencing an item without an author in the Style Manual. These instructions are based on the guidelines in the 6th edition of the Style Manual.
If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.
Title of work (Year) Publisher, Location.
Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun (1983) Blackwell, Oxford, England.
The place of publication can be omitted if no place is known.
There are no guidelines for citing works with no publisher in the Style Manual. Consult your lecturer before citing material without a publisher.
If the date is not known - substitute n.d. in place of the year.
Author AA (n.d.) Title of work, Publisher, Location.
Browne JD (n.d.) Forensic science as a career, Tower, London.