University of Canberra
Skip to Main Content

UC Referencing Guide

Web Site

When citing an entire web site it is sufficient to cite the address in the text. No entry is needed in the reference list.

e.g. Beyondblue ( is a website supporting . . .

Web Document

Note: Only cite an item as a web page when it doesn't fit into any other category e.g. journal, blog, conference proceedings.
If the author and web site are the same, you may omit the site.
You may add a retrieved date if there is no creation date for the item.

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day of creation). Title of work. Name of Web site. URL

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Name of Web site. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Name of Web site. URL


University of Canberra. (2009). Copyright guide. University of Canberra.

MacIsaac, D. (1995). An introduction to action research. Physics Education Server, Buffalo State College.

Dick, B. (2012). A Beginner's Guide to Action Research. Action Research & Action Learning for Community & Organisational Change.

Simon, J., Smith, K., & West, T. (2009). Price incentives and consumer payment behaviour. Reserve Bank of Australia.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. (n.d.). Reducing Australia's greenhouse emissions factsheet. Retrieved February 4, 2009, from CSIRO.

Other resources

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.


Title of work. (Year of publication). Publisher. DOI or URL


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. (1983). Blackwell.

No Year

General guidelines

If the date is not known use n.d. in place of the year. If you have an approximate date use the abbreviation ca. (circa) and the approximate year.


Author, A. A. (ca. year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL


Smythe, V. (ca. 2007). Ant colonies: How they communicate. Emu.

Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower.

Citing a Source Within a Source

Secondary source refers to information first reported in another source, the primary source. If it is possible, find the original source and read it, citing the original source.  If this is not possible then use the procedure below.

Provide a reference to the secondary source (the source you read) and, in-text, identify the primary source then write "as cited in" the secondary source that you used.  Include the original year if you know it.


(Author 1, Year of original, as cited in Author 2, Year)

Author 1, Year of original (as cited in Author 2, Year)

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999) stated that ...

"..." (Schwartz, 2006, as cited in Burton et al., 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. Brooks Cole.

Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Wiley.

EndNote Reference Type

Web Page