Works that cannot be retrieved by the reader are cited in the text as Personal Communications. This can include emails, text messages, personal interviews, telephone conversations, live speeches, unrecorded lectures or letters. Personal communications are cited in-text only with no entry in the Reference List. Include the name of the sender and the date of the communication e.g. (C. Barnes, personal communication, May 13, 2004)
If personal communications are recorded in some way use the format of the recorded medium. e.g. audio recording, video recording, archive.
Author, A. A. (Year of communication). Description of material. Name of Collection (Box/file number). Name of Repository.
Allport, G. W. (1930-1967). Correspondence. Gordon W. Allport Papers (HUG 4118.10). Harvard University Archives.
If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.
Title of work. (Year of publication). Publisher. DOI or URL
Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. (1983). Blackwell.
If the date is not known use n.d. in place of the year. If you have an approximate date use the abbreviation ca. (circa) and the approximate year.
Author, A. A. (ca. year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL
Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL
Smythe, V. (ca. 2007). Ant colonies: How they communicate. Emu.
Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower.
Secondary source refers to information first reported in another source, the primary source. If it is possible, find the original source and read it, citing the original source. If this is not possible then use the procedure below.
Provide a reference to the secondary source (the source you read) and, in-text, identify the primary source then write "as cited in" the secondary source that you used.
(Author 1 as cited in Author 2, Year)
Author 1 (as cited in Author 2, Year)
Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999) stated that ...
"..." (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen, & Kowalski, 2009, p.63)
Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. Brooks Cole.
Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Wiley.