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UC Referencing Guide

Speech - Live


Author. Year of speech. "Title of Speech." Speech given at xxxx, Location of speech, Month Day, Year of speech.


Clark, H. 2007. "Prime Minister's 2007 ANZAC Day Message." Speech given at ANZAC Day celebrations, New Zealand, April 25, 2007.

Hodson, A. 2000. "Peace in Today's World." Speech given at Remembrance Day celebrations, Australian Veterans Memorial Service, Lightning Ridge, NSW, November 11, 2000.

Speech - Recorded


Speaker. Year of speech. "Title of Speech." Description of speech, location of speech, Month Day, Year of speech. Format. URL


Clark, H. 2000. "Prime Minister's 2007 ANZAC Day Message." ANZAC Day speech, Australian Veterans Memorial Service, Lightning Ridge, NSW, November 11, 2000. VHS video.

No Author / Editor

Note: If the author, editor, translator, of the like is unknown, the reference should start with the title.  Works attributed to "Anonymous" should use this as the author.


Title of Work. Year of publication. Edition. Location: Publisher. URL

Anonymous. Year of publication. Title of Work. Edition. Location: Publisher. URL


Anonymous. 1796. On the Prosodies of teh Greek and Latin Languages. London.

Macroeconomics, Prices and Quantities: Essays in Memory of Arthur M. Okun. 1983. Oxford: Blackwell.

No Location / Publisher / Year

If the location is unknown, the abbreviation n.p. takes the place of the location.

If the publisher is unknown, just enter the location and date.

If the year is unknown, the abbreviation n.d. or an estimated year in brackets bakes the place of the year.


Browne, J. D. n.d. Forensic Science as a Career. London: Tower.

Smythe, V. [2007?]. Ant Colonies: How They Communicate. Canberra: Emu.

Citing a Source Within a Source

It is always better to read the original source of a quote, however, you may not always have access to the original source. When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read, include the original author and date in the text and cite the secondary source.

In-text reference

Schwartz 1987 (quoted in Burton, Westen and Kowalski 2009, p.576) stated that "..."


 Burton, Lorelle, Drew Westen and Robin Kowalski. 2009. Psychology. 2nd ed. Milton, Australia: Wiley.

EndNote Reference Type

Conference Paper - enter the event in Conference Name, Place in Conference Location and the work Speech in Type