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UC Referencing Guide

General E-book Guideline

E-books often lack page numbers or the pagination changes depending on the e-reader.  If you are required to provide pagination (check with your lecturer) use the following guidelines –

  • a paragraph or chapter number, if provided; alternatively, you can count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document; 
  • an overarching heading plus a paragraph number within that section; or 
  • an abbreviated heading (or the first few words of the heading) in quotation marks, in cases in which the heading is too unwieldy to cite in full

E-Books - Notes

Format - First note

     Number. Author, Title of Work (Location: Publisher, Year of publication), page or chapter, Electronic Edition.

     Number. Author, Title of Work (Location: Publisher, Year of publication), page or chapter, DOI or URL

Examples - First note

     5. David Eddings, Pawn of Prophecy (n.p.: Del Rey, 2010), Kindle.

     13. Vincent Faggiano, Critical Incident Management: A Complete Response Guide, 2nd ed. (Boca Raton, FL.: CRC Press, 2012), http://www.crcnetbase.com/ISBN/978-1-4398-7454-7

     16. S. Niemann, D. Greenstein and D. David, Helping Children Who Are Deaf: Family and Community Support for Children Who Do Not Hear Well (n.p.: Hesperian Foundation, 2004), http://www.hesperian.org/publications_download_deaf.php

     20. P. Anne Scott, Key Concepts and Issues in Nursing Ethics (New York: Springer, 2004), 43, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-49250-6

Format - Subsequent notes

     Number. Author, Brief Title of Work, page or chapter.

Examples - Subsequent notes

     15. Eddings, Pawn of Prophecy.

     26. Faggiano, Critical Incident Management, 31.

     28. Niemann, Greestein and David, Helping Children Who Are Deaf.

     33. Scott, Key Concepts and Issues in Nursing Ethics, 54.

E-Books - Bibliography

Format - Bibliography

Author. Title of work. Location: Publisher, Year of publication. Electronic Edition.

Author. Title of work. Location: Publisher, Year of publication. DOI or URL

Examples - Bibliography

Eddings, David. Pawn of Prophecy. N.p.: Del Rey, 2010. Kindle.

Faggiano, Vincent. Critical Incident Management: A Complete Response Guide. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL.: CRC Press, 2012. http://www.crcnetbase.com/ISBN/978-1-4398-7454-7

Niemann, S., D. Greenstein, and D. David. Helping Children Who Are Deaf: Family and Community Support for Children Who Do Not Hear Well. N.p.: 2004. http://www.hesperian.org/publications_download_deaf.php

Scott, P. Anne. Key Concepts and Issues in Nursing Ethics. New York: Springer, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-49250-6

One Author - Notes

Format - First note

     Number. Author, Title of Work (Location: Publisher, Year of publication), page, DOI or URL

Examples  - First note

     5. Allan Cochrane, Understanding Urban Policy: A Critical Approach (Malden, MA.: Blackwell, 2007), 55-58.

     8. Anita W. Finkelman, Leadership and Management in Nursing (Upper Saddle River, NJ.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006), 46.

     10. Michael Fullan, The New Meaning of Educational Change (London: Cassell, 1996), 55.

     16. F. Maxwell, Phonology (San Francisco: Brooks Cole, 1999), 25.

Format - Subsequent notes

     Number. Author, Brief Title of Work, page.

Examples - Subsequent notes

     7. Cochrane, Understanding Urban Policy, 62-64.

     15. Finkelman, Leadership and Management in Nursing, 52.

     17. Fullan, New Meaning of Educational Change, 63.

     23. Maxwell, Phonology, 33.

One Author - Bibliography

Format - Bibliography

Author. Title of Work. Location: Publisher, Year of publication. DOI or URL

Examples - Bibliography

Cochrane, Allan. Understanding Urban Policy: A Critical Approach. Malden, MA.: Blackwell, 2007.

Finkelman, Anita, W. Leadership and Management in Nursing. Upper Saddle River, NJ.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006.

Fullan, Michael. The New Meaning of Educational Change. London: Cassell, 1996.

Maxwell, F. Phonology. San Francisco: Brooks Cole, 1999.

Two or Three Authors - Notes

Format - First note

     Number. Author 1, Author 2 and Author 3, Title of Work (Location: Publisher, Year of publication), page, DOI or URL

Examples - First note

     23. Wilfred Carr and Stephen Kemmis, Becoming Critical: Education, Knowledge and Action Research (London: Falmer, 1986), 166.

     37. Stephen W. Littlejohn and Karen A. Foss, Theories of Human Communication, 8th ed. (Southbank, Australia: Thomas Wadsworth, 2005), 15.

Format - Subsequent notes

     Number. Author 1, Author 2 and Author 3, Brief Title of Work, page.

Examples - Subsequent notes

     31. Carr and Kemmis, Becoming Critical, 203.

     43. Littlejohn and Foss, Theories of Human Communication, 24.

Two or Three Authors - Bibliography

Format - Bibliography

Author 1, Author 2 and Author 3. Title of Work. Location: Publisher, Year of publication. DOI or URL

Examples - Bibliography

Carr, Wilfred, and Stephen Kemmis. Becoming Critical: Education, Knowledge and Action Research. London: Falmer, 1986.

Littlejohn, Stephen W., and Karen A. Foss. Theories of Human Communication. 8th ed. Southbank, Australia: Thomas Wadsworth, 2005.

Four or More Authors - Notes

General guidelines

List all authors in the bibliography but only the first author and et al. in the notes.

Format - First note

     Number. Author 1 et al., Title of Work (Location: Publisher, Year of publication), page, DOI or URL

Examples - First note

     7. Ann Louise Duffy et al., Guide to Writing in Biomedical Sciences (Canberra: University of Canberra, 2001), 37.

     14. W. A. Green et al., Matrix Regression Functions Applicable to Variable Plasma Fluxes, 2nd rev. ed. (Sydney: University of New South Wales, 2009), 442.

Format - Subsequent notes

     Number. Author 1 et al., Brief Title of Work, page.

Examples - Subsequent notes

     11. Duffy et al., Writing in Biomedical Sciences, 41.

     25. Green et al., Matrix Regression Functions, 450.

Four or More Authors - Bibliography

Format - Bibliography

Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, Author 4, Author 5, Author 6 and Author 7. Title of Work. Location: Publisher, Year of publication.

Note: List all authors

Examples - Bibliography

Duffy, Ann Louise, Vicki Deakin, Elzbieta Wieniawa-Narkiewicz, and C. Kate Wilson. Guide to Writing in Biomedical Sciences. Canberra: University of Canberra, 2001.

Green, W. A., B. Hodges, H. J. Simons, H. J. Heverson, Q. G. Mally, W. M. De Vanders, A. Smith, P. F. Andrews, and M. J. Greve. Matrix Regression Functions Applicable to Variable Plasma Fluxes. 2nd rev. ed. Sydney: University of New South Wales, 2009.

Corporate Authors / Organisations - Notes

Format - First note

     Number. Name of Organisation, Title of Work (Location: Publisher, Year of publication), page, DOI or URL

Examples - First note

     5. Australian National Audit Office, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission: Community Development Employment Project (Canberra: AGPS, 1990), 15.

     16. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Indigenous Housing Needs 2009: A Multi-Measure Needs Model, AIHW cat. no. JOU 214 (Canberra: AIHW, 2009), 23.

Format - Subsequent notes

     Number. Name of Organisation, Brief Title of Work, page.

Examples - Subsequent notes

     12. Australian National Audit Office, Community Development Employment Project, 20.

     27. AIHW, Indigenous Housing Needs 2009, 17.

Corporate Authors / Organisations - Bibliography

Format - Bibliography

Name of Organisation. Title of Work. Location: Publisher, Year of publication. DOI or URL

Examples - Bibliography

Australian National Audit Office. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission: Community Development Employment Project. Canberra: AGPS, 1990.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Indigenous Housing Needs 2009: A Multi-Measure Needs Model. AIHW cat. no. JOU 214. Canberra: AIHW, 2009.

Edited Book - Notes

Format - First note

     Number. Editor, ed., Title of Work (Location: Publisher, Year of publication), page, DOI or URL

     Number. Editor 1, Editor 2 and Editor 3, eds., Title of Work (Location: Publisher, Year of publication), page, DOI or URL

Examples - First note

     3. M. Thomas Inge, Maurice Duke and Jackson R. Bryer, eds., Black American Writers: Bibliographical Essays, 2 vols. (New York: St Martins, 1978), 2:88.

     6. Stephen Kemmis and Robin McTaggart, eds., The Action Research Planner, 3rd ed. (Melbourne: Deakin University, 1988), 15.

     18. Mohamed Zairi, ed., Best Practice: Process Innovation Management (Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999), 76.

Format - Subsequent notes

     Number. Editor, Brief Title of Work, page.

     Number. Editor 1, Editor 2 and Editor 3, Brief Title of Work, page.

Examples - Subsequent notes

     8. Inge, Duke and Bryer, Black American Writers, 1:53.

     13. Kemmis and McTaggart, Action Research Planner, 26.

     37. Zairi, Best Practice, 43.

Edited Book - Bibliography

Format - Bibliography

Editor, ed. Title of Work. Location: Publisher, Year of publication. DOI or URL

Editor 1, Editor 2 and Editor 3, eds. Title of Work. Location: Publisher, Year of publication. DOI or URL

Examples - Bibliography

Inge, M. Thomas, Maurice Duke, and Jackson R. Bryer, eds. Black American Writers: Bibliographical Essays. 2 vols. New York: St Martins, 1978.

Kemmis, Stephen, and Robin McTaggart, eds. The Action Research Planner. 3rd ed. Melbourne: Deakin University, 1988.

Zairi, Mohamed, ed. Best Practice: Process Innovation Management. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999.

Later Editions - Notes

Format - First note

     Number. Author, Title of Work, xx ed. (Location: Publisher, Year of publication), page, DOI or URL

Examples - First note

      3. Stephen W. Littlejohn and Karen A. Foss, Theories of Human Communication, 8th ed. (Southbank, Australia: Thomas Wadsworth, 2005), 57.

     14. W. A. Green et al., Matrix Regression Functions Applicable to Variable Plasma Fluxes, 2nd rev. ed. (Sydney: University of New South Wales, 2009), 442.

     15. Stephen Kemmis and Robin McTaggart, eds., The Action Research Planner, 3rd ed. (Melbourne: Deakin University, 1988), 48.

Format - Subsequent notes

     Number. Author, Brief title of Work, page.

Examples - Subsequent notes

      9. Littlejohn and Foss, Theories of Human Communication, 99.

     23. Kemmis and McTaggart, Action Research Planner, 23.

     25. Green et al., Matrix Regression Functions, 450.

Later Editions - Bibliography

Format - Bibliography

Author. Title of Work. xx ed. Location: Publisher, Year of publication. DOI or URL

Examples - Bibliography

Green, W. A., B. Hodges, H. J. Simons, H. J. Heverson, Q. G. Mally, W. M. De Vanders, A. Smith, P. F. Andrews, and M. J. Greve. Matrix Regression Functions Applicable to Variable Plasma Fluxes. 2nd rev. ed. Sydney: University of New South Wales, 2009.

Kemmis, Stephen, and Robin McTaggart, eds. The Action Research Planner. 3rd ed. Melbourne: Deakin University, 1988.

Littlejohn, Stephen W., and Karen A. Foss. Theories of Human Communication. 8th ed. Southbank, Australia: Thomas Wadsworth, 2005.

Translated Book - Notes

Format - First note

     Number. Author, Title of Work, trans. Translator (Location: Publisher, Year of publication), page, DOI or URL

Example - First note

     7. Jostein Gaarder, Sophie's World: A Novel About the History of Philosophy, trans. Paulette Moller (London: Phoenix House, 1994), 233.

Format - Subsequent notes

     Number. Author, Brief Title of Work, page.

Example - Subsequent notes

     14. Gaarder, Sophie's World, 250.

Translated Book - Bibliography

Format - Bibliography

Author. Title of Work. Translated by Translator. Location: Publisher, Year of publication. DOI or URL

Example - Bibliography

Gaarder, Jostein. Sophie's World: A Novel About the History of Philosophy. Translated by Paulette Moller. London: Phoenix House, 1994.

Multi-Volume Works - Notes

Format - First note

     Number. Author, Title of Work, number of volumes or particular volume (Location: Publisher, Year of publication), volume:page, DOI or URL

     Number. Author, Title of Volume, vol. x of Title of Set (Location: Publisher, Year of publication), page, DOI or URL

Examples - First note

     21. M. Thomas Inge, Maurice Duke and Jackson R. Bryer, eds., Black American Writers: Bibliographical Essays, 2 vols. (New York: St Martins, 1978), 2:88.

     36. Manning Clark, The Earth Abideth for Ever 1851-1888, vol. 4 of A History of Australia (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1978), 25.

Format - Subsequent notes

     Number. Author, Brief Title of Work, volume:page.

     Number. Author, Brief Title of Volume, page.

Examples - Subsequent notes

     28. Inge, Duke and Bryer, Black American Writers, 1:57.

     43. Clark, Earth Abideth for Ever, 16.

Multi-Volume Works - Bibliography

Format - Bibliography

Author. Title of Work. Number of volumes or particular volume. Location: Publisher, Year of publication. DOI or URL

Author. Title of Volume. Vol. xx of Title of Set. Location: Publisher, Year of publication. DOI or URL

Examples - Bibliography

Clark, Manning. The Earth Abideth for Ever 1851-1888. Vol. 4 of A History of Australia. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1978.

Inge, M. Thomas, Maurice Duke, and Jackson R. Bryer, eds. Black American Writers: Bibliographical Essays. 2 vols. New York: St Martins, 1978.

No Author / Editor

If the author or editor is unknown, the note or bibliography entry should normally begin with the title.  An initial article is ignored in alphabetising.

Format - First note

     1. Title of Work (Location, Publisher, Year of publication), page, URL

Example - First note

     3. Macroeconomics, Prices and Quantities: Essays in Memory of Arthur M. Okun. (Oxford: Blackwell, 1983), 22.

Format - Subsequent notes

     2. Brief Title of Work, page.

Example - Subsequent notes

     4. Macroeconomics, Prices and Quantities, 27.

Format - Bibliography

Title of Work. Location: Publisher, Year of publication. URL

Example - Bibliography

Macroeconomics, Prices and Quantities: Essays in Memory of Arthur M. Okun. Oxford: Blackwell, 1983.

No Location / No Publisher / No Year

If the location is unknown, the abbreviation n.p. takes the place of the location.

If the publisher is unknown, just enter the location and date.

If the year is unknown, the abbreviation n.d. or an estimated year in brackets takes the place of the year.

Examples - First note

     5. J. D. Browne, Forensic Science as a Career (London: Tower, n.d.).

     9. V. Smythe, Ant Colonies: How They Communicate (Canberra: Emu, [2007?]).

Examples - Bibliography

Browne, J. D. Forensic Science as a Career. London: Tower, n.d.

Smythe, V. Ant Colonies: How They Communicate. Canberra: Emu, [2007?].

Citing a Source Within a Source

Cite all known details of the original source, then type 'quoted in' and cite details of the source you are viewing.

Examples - First note

     2. G. E. Schwartz, "Personality and Health: An Integrative Health Science Approach," in The G. Stanley Hall Lecture Series: Vol. 7, ed. V. P. Makosky (Washington: American Psychological Association, 1987), quoted in Lorelle Burton, Drew Westen and Robin Kowalski, Psychology, 2nd ed. (Milton, Australia: Wiley, 2009), 576.

     6. J. C. Overholser, "Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Social Phobia," Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy 32 (2002): 125-144, quoted in Lorelle Burton, Drew Westen and Robin Kowalski, Psychology, 2nd ed. (Milton, Australia: Wiley, 2009).

Examples - Subsequent notes

     4. Schwartz, "Personality and Health."

     10. Overholser, "Treatment of Social Phobia."

Examples - Bibliography

Overholser, J. C. "Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Social Phobia." Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy 32 (2002): 125-144. Quoted in Lorelle Burton, Drew Westen and Robin Kowalski. Psychology. 2nd ed. Milton, Australia: Wiley, 2009.

Schwartz, G. E. "Personality and Health: An Integrative Health Science Approach." In The G Stanley Hall Lecture Series: Vol. 7. Edited by V. P. Makosky. Washington: American Psychologial Association, 1987. Quoted in Lorelle Burton, Drew Westen and Robin Kowalski. Psychology. 2nd ed. Milton, Australia: Wiley, 2009.

EndNote Reference Type

Book  or  Edited Book

Electronic Book  or  Edited Book