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UC Referencing Guide

General Guidelines

In-text citations are the references provided within your work that refer to other works you have used to support your arguments. When entering references in the Chicago style:

  • Number these references in the order they appear in your text, tables or figures. Use Arabic numbers. Assign a number even if the author(s) is named in the sentence/text. A new sequence of numbers is used for each chapter.
  • Place the numbers in superscript. They should be placed after punctuation.
  • Never re-use the number if you mention/cite that particular reference again.  Cite this under a new number.
  • If multiple references are cited at a given place, only use one number and cite all of the references in the note separating each reference by a semi-colon.

The Reference List in the footnotes or endnotes of your paper must list the references in numerical order.

Format and Examples

Format - no direct quote



Cochrane1 concluded that ...


Format - direct quote, fewer than 100 words


Authornumber "..."


The quote is entered in double quotation marks.


An interesting view was expressed that "the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned".1

An interesting view was expressed by Cochrane1 that "the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned".


Format - direct quote, more that 100 words

Text ... Authornumber





Quote number


Quotation marks are not used in this format. The quoted text is indented.


Much has been written about acute care. Finkelman2, for example, points out that:

there are many changes in acute care services occurring almost daily, and due to the increasing use of outpatient surgery, surgical services have experienced major changes. Hospitals are increasing the size of their outpatient or ambulatory surgery departments and adjusting to the need of moving patients into and out of surgical service in 1 day or even a few hours.

Recently, this trend has been seen in some Australian hospitals and research here ...

Other Resources

The Chicago Manual of Style

Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations