University of Canberra
Skip to Main Content

UC Referencing Guide


General Guidelines

If you include artwork in your assignment you must attribute copyright including Creative Commons material.

Add a caption to the artwork including full details of the work of art and copyright information.

Cite Artworks in a separate reference list.

Hyperlink the title of works available online.  If the document you are creating is print only, include a URL after the final full stop in the reference.


Creator AA (Year) Title or description of work [medium], Webpage, Name of Website, Exhibition or Gallery, Location of Gallery, accessed Day Month Year.


Barnes CR (2005), Library at dawn [unpublished photograph].

Rodin A (1902) The thinker [bronze and marble sculpture], Musee Rodin, Paris.

Monet C (1890) Haystacks, midday [online copy of painting] Claude Monet, National Gallery of Australia website, accessed 18 November 2009.

EndNote Reference Type


Citing a Source Within a Source

There are no formal guidelines for citing a source within a source in the Style Manual.  These instructions are based on the guidelines in the 6th edition of the Style Manual.

When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read.

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell 1999:25) stated that '...'

'...' (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen and Kowalski 2009:63)

Reference list

Maxwell F (1999) Phonology, Brooks Cole, San Francisco.

Burton L, Westen D and Kowalski R (2009) Psychology, Wiley, Milton, Qld.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

There are no formal guidelines for referencing an item without an author in the Style Manual.  These instructions are based on the guidelines in the 6th edition of the Style Manual.

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.


Title of work (Year) Publisher, Location.


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun (1983) Blackwell, Oxford, England.

No Location / No Publisher / No Year

General guidelines

The place of publication can be omitted if no place is known.

There are no guidelines for citing works with no publisher in the Style Manual. Consult your lecturer before citing material without a publisher.

If the date is not known - substitute n.d. in place of the year.

Format - no date

Author AA (n.d.) Title of work, Publisher, Location.


Browne JD (n.d.) Forensic science as a career, Tower, London.