University of Canberra
Skip to Main Content

UC Referencing Guide

Data sets


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of data set (Version xx) [Data set]. Publisher. DOI or URL

Author, A. A. (Year of collection). Title of data set [Unpublished raw data]. Source of data.

Author, A. A. (Year of collection). [Description of data set] [Unpublished raw data]. Source of data.

Note: If the author and the source are the same, you may omit the source.


Baer, R. A. (2015). [Correlations between the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills] [Unpublished raw data]. University of Kentucky.

D'Souza, A., & Wiseheart, M. (2018). Cognitive effects of music and dance training in children (ICPSR 37080; Version V1) [Data set]. ICPSR.

Pew Research Center. (2018). American trends panel Wave 26 [Data set].

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

When the author is not named / unknown, the title of the work replaces the author position.  If the work is signed "Anonymous", use anonymous as the author.


Title of work. (Year of publication). Publisher. DOI or URL


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. (1983). Blackwell.

No Year

General guidelines

If the date is not known use n.d. in place of the year. If you have an approximate date use the abbreviation ca. (circa) and the approximate year.


Author, A. A. (ca. year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL


Smythe, V. (ca. 2007). Ant colonies: How they communicate. Emu.

Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower.

Citing a Source Within a Source

Secondary source refers to information first reported in another source, the primary source. If it is possible, find the original source and read it, citing the original source.  If this is not possible then use the procedure below.

Provide a reference to the secondary source (the source you read) and, in-text, identify the primary source then write "as cited in" the secondary source that you used.  Include the original year if you know it.


(Author 1, Year of original, as cited in Author 2, Year)

Author 1, Year of original (as cited in Author 2, Year)

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999) stated that ...

"..." (Schwartz, 2006, as cited in Burton et al., 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. Brooks Cole.

Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Wiley.

EndNote Reference Type