University of Canberra
Skip to Main Content

UC Referencing Guide

Dictionary / Encyclopedia - Book


Editor. Year of publication. Title of Dictionary / Encyclopedia. Edition. Volumes. Location: Publisher. DOI or URL


The Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. 2001. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale Group.

The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2007. 15th ed. 32 vols. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.

VandenBos, Gary R. ed. 2007. APA Dictionary of Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Dictionary / Encyclopedia - Entry

Format - Small Entry

Title of Dictionary / Encyclopedia. Year of Publication. Edition. Location: Publisher. s.v. "Title of Entry." By Author. Accessed Month Day, Year, DOI or URL.

Note: Well know dictionaries or encyclopedias do not need the location and publisher but the edition must be included.

Examples - Small Entry

The Gale Encyclopedia of Pschology. 2001. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale Group. s.v. "Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)." by D. Arcus. Accessed May 15, 2003,

The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 2010. 15th ed. s.v. "Salvation."

Format - Substantial Entry

Author. Year of publication. "Title of Entry." In Title of Encyclopedia, edition, edited by Editor, pages. Location: Publisher. DOI or URL

Example - Substantial Entry

Middleton, Richard. 2011. "Lennon, John Ono (1940-1980)." In Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Online ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

No Author / Editor

Note: If the author, editor, translator, of the like is unknown, the reference should start with the title.  Works attributed to "Anonymous" should use this as the author.


Title of Work. Year of publication. Edition. Location: Publisher. URL

Anonymous. Year of publication. Title of Work. Edition. Location: Publisher. URL


Anonymous. 1796. On the Prosodies of teh Greek and Latin Languages. London.

Macroeconomics, Prices and Quantities: Essays in Memory of Arthur M. Okun. 1983. Oxford: Blackwell.

No Location / Publisher / Year

If the location is unknown, the abbreviation n.p. takes the place of the location.

If the publisher is unknown, just enter the location and date.

If the year is unknown, the abbreviation n.d. or an estimated year in brackets bakes the place of the year.


Browne, J. D. n.d. Forensic Science as a Career. London: Tower.

Smythe, V. [2007?]. Ant Colonies: How They Communicate. Canberra: Emu.

Citing a Source Within a Source

It is always better to read the original source of a quote, however, you may not always have access to the original source. When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read, include the original author and date in the text and cite the secondary source.

In-text reference

Schwartz 1987 (quoted in Burton, Westen and Kowalski 2009, p.576) stated that "..."


 Burton, Lorelle, Drew Westen and Robin Kowalski. 2009. Psychology. 2nd ed. Milton, Australia: Wiley.

EndNote Reference Type

Entire Dictionary / Encyclopedia - Book  or  Electronic Book

Entry without an author - Dictionary

Entry with an author - Book Section  or  Electronic Book Section