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UC Referencing Guide

Artwork in a Museum


Creator, A. A. (Year of creation). Title of work [Description]. Museum Name, Museum Location. URL


Rodin, A. (1902). The thinker [Bronze and marble sculpture]. Musee Rodin, Paris, France.

Artwork From the Web


Creator, A. A. (Year of creation). Title of work [Description]. Website. URL.


GDJ. (2018). Neural network deep learning prismatic [Clip art]. Openclipart.

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic.

Monet, C. (1890). Haystacks, midday [Photograph of painting]. National Gallery of Australia.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

When the author is not named / unknown, the title of the work replaces the author position.  If the work is signed "Anonymous", use anonymous as the author.


Title of work. (Year of publication). Publisher. DOI or URL


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. (1983). Blackwell.

No Year

General guidelines

If the date is not known use n.d. in place of the year. If you have an approximate date use the abbreviation ca. (circa) and the approximate year.


Author, A. A. (ca. year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL


Smythe, V. (ca. 2007). Ant colonies: How they communicate. Emu.

Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower.

Citing a Source Within a Source

Secondary source refers to information first reported in another source, the primary source. If it is possible, find the original source and read it, citing the original source.  If this is not possible then use the procedure below.

Provide a reference to the secondary source (the source you read) and, in-text, identify the primary source then write "as cited in" the secondary source that you used.


(Author 1 as cited in Author 2, Year)

Author 1 (as cited in Author 2, Year)

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999) stated that ...

"..." (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen, & Kowalski, 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. Brooks Cole.

Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Wiley.

EndNote Reference Type