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UC Referencing Guide

Artwork in a Book


Creator, A. A. (Year of creation). Title of image [Description of material]. In A. A. Author (if different from the creator). Title of work (p. x). Publisher. DOI or URL.

Note: If the book has plates inserted between numbered pages, use the plate number in place of page.


van Gough, V. (1889). The starry night [Painting]. In S. Hodge. Art: Everything you need to know about the greatest artists and their works (p. 189). Querous.

Artwork in an Exhibition Catalogue


Creator, A. A. (Year). Title of exhibition. Medium and dates. Museum / Gallery Name. URL.


Collerton, E. (Ed.). (2011). Antonio Dattilo-Rubbo. Exhibition catalogue 28 May - 14 August. Art Gallery of New South Wales.

Artwork in a Museum


Creator, A. A. (Year of creation). Title of work [Description]. Museum Name, Museum Location. URL

Note: Add the URL if you viewed the item on the museum's web site.


Rivers, R. G. (1903). Under the jacaranda [Oil on canvas]. Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane.

Rodin, A. (1902). The thinker [Bronze and marble sculpture]. Musee Rodin, Paris, France.

Art Exhibition

If there is a curator, treat as an editor.  Include the dates of the exhibition as shown in the example below.  Do not include the URL if viewed in person.


Curator, A. A. (Curator). (Date of exhibition). Exhibition title [Exhibition]. Museum Name, Museum Location. URL


Hart, D., Pitt, E., &Dal Pozzo, Y. (Curators). (14 Nov 2020 - 4 July 2021). Know my name: Australian women artists 1900 to now [Exhibition]. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

Artwork From the Web


Creator, A. A. (Year of creation). Title of work [Description]. Website. URL.


GDJ. (2018). Neural network deep learning prismatic [Clip art]. Openclipart.

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic.

Monet, C. (1890). Haystacks, midday [Photograph of painting]. National Gallery of Australia.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

When the author is not named / unknown, the title of the work replaces the author position.  If the work is signed "Anonymous", use anonymous as the author.


Title of work. (Year of publication). Publisher. DOI or URL


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. (1983). Blackwell.

No Year

General guidelines

If the date is not known use n.d. in place of the year. If you have an approximate date use the abbreviation ca. (circa) and the approximate year.


Author, A. A. (ca. year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL


Smythe, V. (ca. 2007). Ant colonies: How they communicate. Emu.

Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower.

Citing a Source Within a Source

Secondary source refers to information first reported in another source, the primary source. If it is possible, find the original source and read it, citing the original source.  If this is not possible then use the procedure below.

Provide a reference to the secondary source (the source you read) and, in-text, identify the primary source then write "as cited in" the secondary source that you used.  Include the original year if you know it.


(Author 1, Year of original, as cited in Author 2, Year)

Author 1, Year of original (as cited in Author 2, Year)

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999) stated that ...

"..." (Schwartz, 2006, as cited in Burton, et al., 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. Brooks Cole.

Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Wiley.

EndNote Reference Type