Individual personal communications are given in text only. Collections of letters or other communication are listed in the Bibliography.
(Author, type of communication, Month Day, Year of communication)
(Julie Cantor, pers. comm.)
(Mark Coleman, email message to author, July 11, 2007)
(Brenda Hasbrouck, text message to author, May 5, 2017)
Author. Description. Respository, Location.
Note: Dates are not needed in the Bibliography. Give specific dates of individual communications in the in-text entry.
Allport, Gordon W. Correspondence. Harvard University Archives, Cambridge, MA.
Note: If the author, editor, translator, of the like is unknown, the reference should start with the title. Works attributed to "Anonymous" should use this as the author.
Title of Work. Year of publication. Edition. Location: Publisher. URL
Anonymous. Year of publication. Title of Work. Edition. Location: Publisher. URL
Anonymous. 1796. On the Prosodies of teh Greek and Latin Languages. London.
Macroeconomics, Prices and Quantities: Essays in Memory of Arthur M. Okun. 1983. Oxford: Blackwell.
If the location is unknown, the abbreviation n.p. takes the place of the location.
If the publisher is unknown, just enter the location and date.
If the year is unknown, the abbreviation n.d. or an estimated year in brackets bakes the place of the year.
Browne, J. D. n.d. Forensic Science as a Career. London: Tower.
Smythe, V. [2007?]. Ant Colonies: How They Communicate. Canberra: Emu.
It is always better to read the original source of a quote, however, you may not always have access to the original source. When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read, include the original author and date in the text and cite the secondary source.
Schwartz 1987 (quoted in Burton, Westen and Kowalski 2009, p.576) stated that "..."
Burton, Lorelle, Drew Westen and Robin Kowalski. 2009. Psychology. 2nd ed. Milton, Australia: Wiley.