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UC Referencing Guide

General Guidelines

Individual personal communications are given in text only. Collections of letters or other communication are listed in the Bibliography.

Individual communication

Format - In-Text only

(Author, type of communication, Month Day, Year of communication)


(Julie Cantor, pers. comm.)

(Mark Coleman, email message to author, July 11, 2007)

(Brenda Hasbrouck, text message to author, May 5, 2017)

Collection of Communications


Author. Description. Respository, Location.

Note: Dates are not needed in the Bibliography.  Give specific dates of individual communications in the in-text entry.


Allport, Gordon W. Correspondence. Harvard University Archives, Cambridge, MA.

No Author / Editor

Note: If the author, editor, translator, of the like is unknown, the reference should start with the title.  Works attributed to "Anonymous" should use this as the author.


Title of Work. Year of publication. Edition. Location: Publisher. URL

Anonymous. Year of publication. Title of Work. Edition. Location: Publisher. URL


Anonymous. 1796. On the Prosodies of teh Greek and Latin Languages. London.

Macroeconomics, Prices and Quantities: Essays in Memory of Arthur M. Okun. 1983. Oxford: Blackwell.

No Location / Publisher / Year

If the location is unknown, the abbreviation n.p. takes the place of the location.

If the publisher is unknown, just enter the location and date.

If the year is unknown, the abbreviation n.d. or an estimated year in brackets bakes the place of the year.


Browne, J. D. n.d. Forensic Science as a Career. London: Tower.

Smythe, V. [2007?]. Ant Colonies: How They Communicate. Canberra: Emu.

Citing a Source Within a Source

It is always better to read the original source of a quote, however, you may not always have access to the original source. When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read, include the original author and date in the text and cite the secondary source.

In-text reference

Schwartz 1987 (quoted in Burton, Westen and Kowalski 2009, p.576) stated that "..."


 Burton, Lorelle, Drew Westen and Robin Kowalski. 2009. Psychology. 2nd ed. Milton, Australia: Wiley.