Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day of post). Title or description of post [Description of post]. Platform Name. URL
Name of Group. (Year, Month Day of post). Title or description of post [Description of post]. Platform Name. URL
Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month Day of post). Title or description of post [Description of post]. Platform Name. URL
Username. (Year, Month Day of post). Title or description of post [Description of post]. Platform Name. URL
Note: Add a retrieval date if the content may change over time.
Duncan Henley, T. [@teilart]. (2020, November 13). Channeling an autumn palatte [Print]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/CRdTWhWMgh-/
Kevin Rudd and Labor. (2009, October 24). Australian civilian corps to help in crises [Post]. Facebook. Retrieved January 23, 2010, from http://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=200124043571&ref=mf
Zeitz MOCAA [@zeitzmocaa]. (2018, November 26). Grade 6 learners from Parkfields Primary School in Hanover Park visited the museum for a tour and workshop hosted by [Photographs]. Instagram. https://www.intagram.com/p/BqpHpjFBs3b/
White, B. [@BettyMWhite]. (2018, June 21). I treasure every minute we spent together #koko [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BettyMWhite/status/1009951892846227456
If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.
Title of work. (Year of publication). Publisher. DOI or URL
Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. (1983). Blackwell.
If the date is not known use n.d. in place of the year. If you have an approximate date use the abbreviation ca. (circa) and the approximate year.
Author, A. A. (ca. year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL
Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL
Smythe, V. (ca. 2007). Ant colonies: How they communicate. Emu.
Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower.
Secondary source refers to information first reported in another source, the primary source. If it is possible, find the original source and read it, citing the original source. If this is not possible then use the procedure below.
Provide a reference to the secondary source (the source you read) and, in-text, identify the primary source then write "as cited in" the secondary source that you used.
(Author 1 as cited in Author 2, Year)
Author 1 (as cited in Author 2, Year)
Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999) stated that ...
"..." (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen, & Kowalski, 2009, p.63)
Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. Brooks Cole.
Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Wiley.