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UC Referencing Guide

Facebook / Twitter / Instagram

Note: The title or description is up to the first 20 words of the post.
Format

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day of post). Title or description of post [Description of post]. Platform Name. URL

Name of Group. (Year, Month Day of post). Title or description of post [Description of post]. Platform Name. URL

Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month Day of post). Title or description of post [Description of post]. Platform Name. URL

Username. (Year, Month Day of post). Title or description of post [Description of post]. Platform Name. URL

Note: Add a retrieval date if the content may change over time.

Example

Kevin Rudd and Labor. (2009, October 24). Australian civilian corps to help in crises. Facebook. Retrieved January 23, 2010, from http://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=200124043571&ref=mf

Zeitz MOCAA [@zeitzmocaa]. (2018, November 26). Grade 6 learners from Parkfields Primary School in Hanover Park visited the museum for a tour and workshop hosted by [Photographs]. Instagram. https://www.intagram.com/p/BqpHpjFBs3b/

White, B. [@BettyMWhite]. (2018, June 21). I treasure every minute we spent together #koko [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BettyMWhite/status/1009951892846227456

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.

Format

Title of work. (Year of publication). Publisher. DOI or URL

Example

Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. (1983). Blackwell.

No Year

General guidelines

If the date is not known use n.d. in place of the year. If you have an approximate date use the abbreviation ca. (circa) and the approximate year.

Format

Author, A. A. (ca. year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL

Examples

Smythe, V. (ca. 2007). Ant colonies: How they communicate. Emu.

Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower.

Citing a Source Within a Source

Secondary source refers to information first reported in another source, the primary source. If it is possible, find the original source and read it, citing the original source.  If this is not possible then use the procedure below.

Provide a reference to the secondary source (the source you read) and, in-text, identify the primary source then write "as cited in" the secondary source that you used.

Format

(Author 1 as cited in Author 2, Year)

Author 1 (as cited in Author 2, Year)

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999) stated that ...

"..." (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen, & Kowalski, 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. Brooks Cole.

Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Wiley.

EndNote Reference Type

Social Media