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UC Referencing Guide

What is Harvard style?

Harvard is a common name for several different styles.  The style predominantly used at the University of Canberra is the Australian Government Style outlined in Style manual: The standard for Australian Government writing and editing.  Please check with your unit convener if you are unsure of the version of Harvard you are to use.

Harvard is an author-date referencing system with in-text citations and a reference list.  This style is widely accepted in the physical, natural and social sciences and is gaining popularity in the humanities.

The style guide to refer to is Style manual: The standard for Australian Government writing and editing published by the Australian Government.  This is a web-based guide.

Australian Government Style Manual

General Guidelines


Author AA (Year) Title, Publisher, Location.

Editor AA (ed) (Year) Title, Publisher, Location.

Author AA (Year) 'Title of article', Title of Journal Volume(Issue):pages.

  • Authors are entered in the form Author AA with no punctuation after each initial. An editor is entered with "(ed)" after the name, but use "(eds)" if there are more than one editor.

Smith JF and Tindale P

  • Titles of published works are entered in italics. Minimal capitalization is used in reference entries.

This is my life: collection of photos by Andrew Snowden

  • Article titles and section titles are entered in single quotation marks.

'How we use mobile phones', Social Science Quarterly

  • Titles: If there is no title on an item, e.g. photograph, use a description of the item as the title.

Child playing with dog [photograph]

  • Publisher: Enter the publisher as it appears on the item.  Only include the place of publication if it is relevant to the user e.g. if the work is published in multiple locations or if the location of the item impacts on the credibility of your work.

Elsevier, Amsterdam

Elsevier, Sydney

University of Canberra

  • URL links: The title of the item is hyperlinked to the URL of the item.  If this is not possible because the document is print only, then enter the URL after the final full stop in the reference.  If you are citing a PDF do not link to the PDF but to the landing page where the PDF is hosted.  If the PDF does not have a landing page, link to the PDF but include PDF and the file size in square brackets after the title.  If the document has a DOI, enter this at the end of the reference prefixed by doi in lower case.

Thomson Reuters Australia (n.d.) Table of abbreviations [PDF 94.35KB], Thomson Reuters Australia, accessed 20 January 2020.

Kelleher T (2009) 'Conversational voice', Journal of Communication, 59(1):172-188, doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01410.x

In-Text Citation

You need to provide an in-text reference if you:

  • use a long direct quotation
  • use a short direct quotation
  • use an indirect quotation by either paraphrasing or summarising

In-text references typically contain the following information, in this order:

  • the surname (family name) of the author/s
  • the year of publication of the text
  • the page number/s of the text (only for direct quotations when page numbers are available)

Reference List

References are created using these style guidelines.  They are then listed in a reference list or bibliography.  This list is filed alphabetically by author, or by title if there is no author.

You will need to compile a list of all sources used in your assignment/report. Your Reference list must provide full and accurate details, as it is the means by which the reader can locate your sources. Guidelines for referencing a variety of sources are available in this Library Guide.

Harvard and EndNote

None of the Harvard Citation Styles supplied by EndNote are suitable for use at the University of Canberra.

If you are using the EndNote program to organise your references, please download the UC Harvard Style below.

NOTE: EndNote is not capable of hyperlinking titles so you will need to convert your document to Plain Text and hyperlink each title manually.