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UC Referencing Guide

What is IEEE

The IEEE referencing style was created by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.  The guidelines are set out in the resources listed below.

IEEE is a numbered system with a number in-text and a numbered list at the end of the document.

IEEE Reference Guide

IEEE Editorial Style Manual for Authors

IEEE Editorial Style Manual

Some IEEE referencing guidelines have conflicting information.  Where this occurs we have used the style in the IEEE Reference Guide.

General Guidelines


[1]       A. Author, Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Year.

[2]      E. Editor, Ed., Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Year.

[3]      A. Author, "Title of chapter," in Title, A Editor, Ed., Place of publication: Publisher, Year.

[4]      A. Author, "Title of article," Abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. x, no. x, pp. xx-xx, Month, year, doi:xxx

  • References must be entered with the number sitting to the left of the body of the reference.

[1] T. Berno, "Social enterprise, sustainability and community in post-earthquake Christchurch: exploring the role of local food systems in building resilience," J. Enterprising Communities, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 149, Jan. 2017.

  • Authors: Give authors in the format A. A. Author

J. P. Smith and F. Tindale

  • Authors: In references: Up to 6 authors - list all authors.  More than 6 authors - list primary author followed by et al. In-text: Use et al. when 3 or more authors are listed.
  • Title: Are written in italics unless otherwise specified.  Capitalise all major words of the title and subtitle.

This is My Life: Collection of Photos by Andrew Snowden

  • Articles: Article titles are not italicised and are enclosed in double quotation marks.  Only first word and proper nouns are capitalised.  All major words in journal titles are capitalised and the title is italicised.  Journal titles are abbreviated.

"How we use mobile phones," Social Sci. Quart.

  • Publishers: Place of publication is written as City, State (US only), Country.  Publisher is abbreviated. If no date is available use n.d.

New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill

Canberra, Australia: Univ. of Canberra

Southbank, Australia: Wadsworth

  • DOI or URL

Follow this format for entering the DOI or URL including whether you need a period at the end of the reference.  See each reference type for the format to use.

  • Accessed date. [Online]. Available: URL, DOI.
  • Accessed date: [Online]. Available: URL
  • Accessed date, DOI.
  • URL, DOI.
  • DOI.
  • URL
Example Text

This is a sentence with a reference to a journal article [1]. You can find the full details of the journal article by looking up the corresponding number in the reference list below.  Baiazitova et al. [2] wrote a conference paper.  Because there are more than three authors on this paper, when mentioning the authors by name in the text of a document, only the first author's name and "et al." is used.  You can also reference books and standards in IEEE style, and reference multiple sources at the end of the same sentence [3], [4].

When a reference has seven or more authors, only the first author's name in included in the reference list, followed by et al. [5]. Whereas this journal article has four authors, so their names are all listed in the reference [6]. If you make a direct quote, place the page number(s) inside the brackets, for example "titanium alloys have also been used for surface modification with HA nanoparticles" [6, p. 148].


[1]       T. Pitman, "The evolution of the student as a customer in Australian higher education: a policy perspective," Aust. Educ. Res., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 345-359, May 2016, doi: 10.1007/s13384-016-0204-9.

[2]       L. Baiazitova, J. Skopalik, V. Cmiel, J. Chmelik, O. Svoboda and I Provaznik, "Modern semi-automatic set-up for testing cell migration with impact for therapy of myocardial infarction," in IFMBE Proc., May 2019, vol. 68, 3 ed., pp. 155-159, doi: 10.1007/978-981-10-9023-3_28.

[3]       J. Chapman, C. Landis and S. Smith, "The development of a library Research Methods course for online graduate students in education," in Information Literacy Programs in the Digital Age: Educating College and University Students Online, A. Daugherty and M. F. Russo, Eds. Chicago, IL, USA: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2007, ch. 3, pp. 13-22.

[4]       Petroleum, Petrochemical and Natural Gas Industries - Composite Repairs for Pipework, ISO 24817, ISO, Switzerland, 2017.

[5]       T. Liu et al., "biomimetic fabrication of new bioceramics-introduced fibrous scaffolds: from physicochemical characteristics to in vitro biological properties," Mater. Sci. Eng., C, vol. 94, pp. 547-557, Jan. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.09.063.

[6]       K. D. Patel, R. K. Singh, J. H. Lee and H. W. Kim, "Electrophoretic coatings of hydroxyapatite with various nanocrystal shapes," MatL, vol. 234, pp. 148-154, Sep. 2019, doi: 10.1016/jmatlet.2018.09.066. 

In-Text Citations

You need to provide an in-text citation if you:

  • use a long direct quotation
  • use a short direct quotation
  • use an indirect quotation by either paraphrasing or summarising

IEEE uses Arabic numbers to number references.  The numbers are put in square brackets e.g. [1]

Use et al. when 3 or more authors are mentioned in the text: e.g. Brown and Taylor [3] discussed and Wood et al. [4] referred to...

Once a source as been cited, the same number is used in all subsequent references in the report.

If a direct quotation is used add the pages number/s to the number. [4, p. 23]

Reference List

A sequential enumerated list appears at the end of your paper, the references are listed in numerical order.

The number sits to the left of the body of the reference.

[1] T. Berno, 'Social enterprise, sustainability and community in post-earthquake Christchurch: exploring the role of local food systems in building resilience," J. Enterprising Communities, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 149, Jan. 2017.

Single space references and double space between references.

References are created using these style guidelines.

You will need to compile a list of all sources used in your assignment / report.  Your reference list must provide full and accurate details, as it is the means by which the reader can follow up your sources.  Guidelines for referencing a variety of sources are available in this Library Guide.

Other Useful Links

Journal abbreviations and information

ISSN Portal

Ulrichs Web

Web of Science: Journal Title Abbreviations

Abbreviations in References

IEEE Reference Guide (pp. 18-21)

IEEE Journals and Magazines

Library site



IEEE and EndNote

You can use the IEEE referencing style available through EndNote but please check your references against the UC Referencing Guide or IEEE Reference Guide.