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UC Referencing Guide

Related UC Information

1. Plagarism and collusion Student Academic Integrity Policy

2. Uni policy on internet use? See permissible use (UC)

3. Recording live performance. Live performances are covered by copyright and permission must be sought. See Copyright Guide section 3

Exceptions and Special Agreements

The Copyright Act's 'Fair dealing' allows the use of text material without permission for the following purposes:

  1. research or study - 10% or one chapter/article
  2. criticism or review - must acknowledge the work
  3. parody or satire
  4. reporting news
  5. enabling a person with a disability to access the material
  6. professional advice e.g. by a lawyer

(Australian Copyright Council Fair Dealing 2020)

Educational institutions also have special agreements with copyright owners to allow them to digitise and electronically communicate copyright material, see the UC Copyright Guide, sections 6 & 7 for details.

Some works may be copied under Creative Commons licence.

Your own work

An original work created by a student is protected by copyright. Your permission is required by
anyone wanting to copy or communicate your work. The UC Copyright Guide has details.

Random Photographs

Random Photographs by Parker Michael Knight under a CC BY 2.0 licence

Photocopying and Scanning

You may copy for your research and study:

  • One chapter of a book, or 10% of the pages (10% of the words if the work is in electronic form)
  • One article from a journal or newspaper (more if the articles are for the same assignment, or are on the same subject matter in a special edition)
  • 15 pages from an anthology (for example: a collection of short stories)
  • All of an artistic work, for example: a diagram or photo (when not available for separate purchase)
  • 10% of a sheet music piece or play

Copying from the Internet

The Internet makes music, videos, pictures and text freely available to the general public. Like print material, Internet content can only be used if one of the following applies:

  • The copyright owner gives you written permission in response to a request for copyright clearance
  • The copyright owner has included a statement of permission in their materials
  • Your usage falls within the scope of the Exemptions & Special Agreements provisions

Document Delivery

The Library may be able to supply copies through Document Services up to the following limits:

  • One chapter or 10% of a book (whichever is greater)
  • One article from a journal issue, or more than one if it is for the same research topic.

Copying from Library Databases

Copying of materials from databases, electronic book and journal collections to which the University Library subscribes (e.g. EBSCO), is governed by licensing agreements between the University and the database provider. In general, under such agreements students or staff may print or save limited amounts for their own study or research. Systematic printing or downloading is not permitted.

Copying Online Course Materials

Online course materials are covered by copyright. You must not copy these and/or pass them on to people who are not staff or students of the University.

Copying Music

Music can be copied/downloaded only for study purposes.  For details see UC Copyright Guide 

Using images

Copyright for images follows the rules for other types of material. For more information look at the Images Guide.

Movies & TV shows

Students may play legitimate copies of DVDs, films, CDs or other audio or audio-visual resources in class (ie, as part of an assessment task). The resources cannot be 'pirate' versions, for example downloaded from peer to peer/BitTorrent sites or copied from Youtube. This kind of 'live' presentation or 'performance' of content is allowed under Copyright Act (s. 28).

TV or radio programs can also be copied and played by students as part of an assessment task.

See the UC Copyright Guide


As a general rule, copying software without permission from the copyright owner is illegal and is not permitted at the University. See the UC Copyright Guide

Campus Copyright Contact

University Copyright Officer

External Copyright Contacts