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UC Referencing Guide

What is APA Style?

The rules of APA Style are detailed in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th edition. APA Style was first developed 80 years ago by a group of social scientists who wished to establish sound standards of communication. Since that time, it has been adopted by leaders in many fields and has been used by writers around the world.

APA Style is based on an author-date system with in-text referencing and a reference list.

General Guidelines

Format

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pp-pp.

Guidelines
  • Authors: Give authors in the format Author, A. A.

Smith, J. P., & Tindale, F.

  • Titles: Are written in italics. Capitalise the first word of the title and subtitle and any proper nouns.

This is my life: Collection of photos by Andrew Snowden

  • Titles: If there is no title on an item, e.g. photo from the web, create a title and enter it in square brackets in place of the title.

[Child playing with dog]

  • Articles: Article titles are not italicised. All major words in journal titles are capitalised and the title is italicised.

How we use mobile phones. Social Science Quarterly

  • Publishers: Give the location as city and state for the United States and city and country for all other countries. The name of the publisher should be given as briefly as possible.  Do not use words such as Publisher, Co., Inc. and use the surname only for publishers named after persons. Do not give the name of the city or state if it is part of the name of a university as the publisher.

Merklein, H. A. (1972). Macroeconomics. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Gumby, T. F. (1972). The brain specialist. Cambridge, England: Python.

Duffy, A., Deakin, V., Wieniawa-Narkiewicz, E., & Wilson, K. (2001). Guide to writing in biomedical sciences. Australia: University of Canberra.

In-Text Citation

You need to provide an in-text reference if you:

  • use a long direct quotation
  • use a short direct quotation
  • use an indirect quotation by either paraphrasing or summarising. 

In-text references typically contain the following information, in this order:

  • the surname (family name) of the author/s
  • the year of publication of the text
  • the page number/s of the text (usually for direct quotations, particular ideas and concepts).

Reference List

References are created using these style guidelines.  They are then listed in a reference list or bibliography.  This list is filed alphabetically by author, or by title if there is no author.  The reference list must have a hanging indent.

You will need to compile a list of all sources used in your assignment/report. Your Reference list must provide full and accurate details, as it is the means by which the reader can follow up your sources. Guidelines for referencing a variety of sources are available in this Library Guide.

Duffy, A., Deakin, V., Wieniawa-Narkiewicz, E., & Wilson, K. (2001). Guide to writing in biomedical sciences. Australia: University of Canberra.

Gumby, T. F. (1972). The brain specialist. Cambridge, England: Python.

Merklein, H. A. (1972). Macroeconomics. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

APA and EndNote

There are a variety of APA 6th Citation Styles supplied by EndNote. These are incomplete and are not suitable for use at the University of Canberra.

Please download the UC APA 6th Style below.

To use this style successfully please enter your references using the reference types listed on each page of this guide.

Other Resources