The rules of APA Style are detailed in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: The Official Guide to APA Style. 7th edition. APA Style was first developed 80 years ago by a group of social scientists who wished to establish sound standards of communication. Since that time, it has been adopted by leaders in many fields and has been used by writers around the world.
APA Style is based on an author-date system with in-text referencing and a reference list.
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.
Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pages. DOI or URL
Berno, T. (2017). Social enterprise, sustainability and community in post-earthquake Christchurch: Exploring the role of local food systems in building resilience. Journal of Enterprising Communities, 11(1), 149.
Smith, J. P., & Tindale, F.
This is my life: Collection of photos by Andrew Snowden
[Photo of a child playing with dog]
How we use mobile phones. Social Science Quarterly
Merklein, H. A. (1972). Macroeconomics. Wadsworth.
Gumby, T. F. (1972). The brain specialist. Python; Basic Books.
Include the DOI in the reference if it is available.
Effective March 2017, the recommended DOI display format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016372.
However, older formats such as doi:10.1037/arc0000014 or http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014 are also acceptable.
Pick one format to use consistently throughout a reference list.
You need to provide an in-text reference if you:
In-text references typically contain the following information, in this order:
The reference list is a list of works that has been cited in your paper. The information provided allows the work to be identified and retrieved. (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th ed, p.281). Reference list entries are created using the APA style referencing guidelines. References must appear with a hanging indent.
Berno, T. (2017). Social enterprise, sustainability and community in post-earthquake Christchurch: exploring the role of local food systems in building resilience. Journal of Enterprising Communities, 11(1), 149.
The reference list displays in alphabetical order. If same authors name is cited for another work, arrange by year of publication, the earliest first.
Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (Eds.). (2018). The Sage handbook of qualitative research. Sage.
Jacobsen, K. H. (2012). Introduction to health research methods: A practical guide. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Jacobsen, K. H. (2019). Introduction to global health. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Restouin, A., Aresta, S., Prebet, T., Borg, J., Badache, A., & Collette, Y. (2009). A Simplified, 96-well-adapted, ATP luminescence-based motility assay. BioTechniques, 47, 871-875. http://www.biotechniques.com/BiotechniquesJournal/
None of the APA 7th Citation Styles supplied by EndNote are complete.
If you are using the EndNote program to organise your references, please download the UC APA 7th Style below.