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UC Referencing Guide

In-Text Citations

General guidelines

Note: In-text citations for specific formats are listed below.

In the Chicago Author / Date style, text citations are entered in 2 ways:

  • 'Information prominent' (the author's name is within the parentheses):

 The conclusion reached in a recent study (Cochrane 2007) was that ...

  • 'Author prominent' (the author's name is outside the parentheses):

Cochrane (2007) concluded that ...

Format - no direct quote

(Author Year)

Author (Year)


If two authors have the same surname then you must include an initial.

e.g. (C. Doershuk 2009)        (J. Doershuk 2010)


The conclusion reached in a recent study (Cochrane 2007) was that ...

Cochrane (2007) concluded that ...

Format - direct quote, fewer than 100 words

"..." (Author Year, Page)

Author (Year, Page) "..."

Author (Year) "..." (Page)


The quote is entered in double quotation marks.

The source of the direct quotation normally follows the quotation but it may come earlier if it fits more smoothly into the introductory text (Chicago Manual of Style, section 13.62).


An interesting view was expressed that "the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned" (Cochrane 2007, 117).

An interesting view was expressed by Cochrane (2007, 117) that "the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned".

An interesting view was expressed by Cochrane (2007) that "the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned" (117).


Format - direct quote, more that 100 words


Quote (Author Year, Page/s)


Quotation marks are not used in this format and the quote is indented.


Much has been written about acute care. Finkelman, for example, points out that:

there are many changes in acute care services occurring almost daily, and due to the increasing use of outpatient surgery, surgical services have experienced major changes. Hospitals are increasing the size of their outpatient or ambulatory surgery departments and adjusting to the need of moving patients into and out of surgical service in 1 day or even a few hours. (Finkelman 2007, 184-5)

Recently, this trend has been seen in some Australian hospitals and research here ...

One Author


(Author Year)

Author (Year)


The conclusion reached in a recent study (Cochrane 2007) was that ...

Cochrane (2007) concluded that ...

Two or Three Authors


(Author and Author Year)

Author and Author (Year)

(Author, Author and Author Year)


Cite all names every time the reference occurs in text.


(Littlejohn and Foss 2005)


Four or More Authors


(Author 1 et al. Year)

Author 1 et al. (Year)


(Green et al. 2009)


If citing two or more books with different authors which shorten to the same author and year, then add extra authors until they are unique.


Book 1. Green GH, Andrews TL, Peterson SR & Edwards TW 2010

Book 2. Green SL, Snowden PY, Robertson BL & Moss V 2010

In-text citations become:

(Green, Andrews, et al. 2010)

(Green, Snowden, et al. 2010)

Same Author Same Year

General guidelines

If the same author or group of authors have multiple works published in the same year, identify each work by adding the suffixes a, b, c, d after the year.


(Fullan 1996a)

(Fullan 1996b)

Corporate Author / Organisation


(Corporate author Year)

Corporate author (Year)


If the abbreviation of the corporate author is familiar or readily understandable then it can be entered as the corporate author.


(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2009)

(AIHW 2009)

Two or More Works Cited Together

General guidelines

Order the citations within the parentheses in alphabetical order as they would appear in the reference list, separated by a semicolon. If there are multiple works by the same author include the year only of the additional works.


(Carr and Kemmis 1986; Dick 2000; Kemmis and McTaggart 1988; MacIsaac 1995)

(Carr and Kemmis 1986: MacIsaac 1995, 1998)

Special Cases

Multivolume sets or collections produced over several years

Enter a range of years to cover the set or collection.

(Allport 1930-67)

Reprinted material

Include the original and reprint date in the citation

(Hade [2002] 2005)

Personal communication

Include the name of the writer and the abbreviation pers. comm.

(Mark Coleman, pers. comm.)


Include the name and year of the Act.

(Anti-Discrimination Act 1991)

Case law

Give the name of the case and the year of the decision.

(Mace v. Murray 1955)

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If no author is present use the title in place of the author.  The title may be shortened to the first few words if it is a long title. If the work is attributed to Anonymous then this should be cited as the author.


(Title Year)

Title (Year)

(Anonymous Year)


(Macroeconomics, prices and quantities 1983)

No Year

If no date of publication is available use an estimated date or n.d. in place of the year.


(Author n.d.)

(Author [estimated date?])


(Browne n.d.)

(Smythe [2007?])

Citing a Source Within a Source

It is always better to read the original source of a quote, however, you may not always have access to the original source. When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read, include the original author and date in the text and cite the secondary source.

In-text reference

Schwartz 1987 (quoted in Burton, Westen and Kowalski 2009, p.576) stated that "..."


 Burton, Lorelle, Drew Westen and Robin Kowalski. 2009. Psychology. 2nd ed. Milton, Australia: Wiley.

Other Resources

The Chicago Manual of Style Online

Author-Date: Sample Citations