Use this format for print or online newspapers. For online news sources such as CNN or BBC News see Online News Sites below.
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day of publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, pp. xx. URL
Darby, A. (2002, August 20). Rarest tiger skin a rugged survivor. Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au
Waterford, J. (2007, May 30). Bill of Rights gets it wrong. The Canberra Times, p. 11.
Clark, E. (2003, 13 July). Enforcement, not shortage of laws, at the heart of spam's virulent growth. The Canberra Times. http://www.canberratimes.com.au
Internet pioneer to oversee network redesign. (2007, May 28). The Canberra Times, p. 15.
Use this format for online news sources such as CNN or BBC News, not Newspapers that are online. To site articles from online newspapers see Newspaper Articles.
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day of publication). Title of news item. News Site. URL
Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Think age-positive. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/03/health/respect-toward-elderly-leads-to-long-life-intl/index.html
If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.
Title of work. (Year of publication). Publisher. DOI or URL
Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. (1983). Blackwell.
If the date is not known use n.d. in place of the year. If you have an approximate date use the abbreviation ca. (circa) and the approximate year.
Author, A. A. (ca. year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL
Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL
Smythe, V. (ca. 2007). Ant colonies: How they communicate. Emu.
Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower.
Secondary source refers to information first reported in another source, the primary source. If it is possible, find the original source and read it, citing the original source. If this is not possible then use the procedure below.
Provide a reference to the secondary source (the source you read) and, in-text, identify the primary source then write "as cited in" the secondary source that you used.
(Author 1 as cited in Author 2, Year)
Author 1 (as cited in Author 2, Year)
Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999) stated that ...
"..." (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen, & Kowalski, 2009, p.63)
Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. Brooks Cole.
Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Wiley.