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UC Referencing Guide

Lecture / Tutorial Notes


Author, A. A. (Year of lecture). Unit number and name, lecture number, week number: Title of lecture [Description]. URL

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day of lecture). [Description of lecture material]. Unit, Department, University. URL


Andrews, P. (2009). Unit 8147 Writing short narratives, lecture 1, week 1: What is fiction? [PowerPoint slides].

Canan, E., & Vasilev, J. (2019, May 22). [Lecture notes on resource allocation]. Department of Management Control and Information Systems, University of Chile.

Reading Lists


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pages. University of Canberra Reading Lists.

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds), Title of book (pp. xx-xx). University of Canberra Reading Lists.


Rose, A. (1996). Freedom of information under review. Canberra Bulletin of Public Administration80(September), 4-8. University of Canberra Reading Lists.

Wilson, A., Johns, R., Miller, K., & Pentecost, R. (2010). Presenting and using the research results. In Marketing research: An integrated approach (pp. 243-259). University of Canberra Reading Lists.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.


Title of work. (Year of publication). Publisher. DOI or URL


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun. (1983). Blackwell.

No Year

General guidelines

If the date is not known use n.d. in place of the year. If you have an approximate date use the abbreviation ca. (circa) and the approximate year.


Author, A. A. (ca. year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL


Smythe, V. (ca. 2007). Ant colonies: How they communicate. Emu.

Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower.

Citing a Source Within a Source

Secondary source refers to information first reported in another source, the primary source. If it is possible, find the original source and read it, citing the original source.  If this is not possible then use the procedure below.

Provide a reference to the secondary source (the source you read) and, in-text, identify the primary source then write "as cited in" the secondary source that you used.  Include the original year if you know it.


(Author 1, Year of original, as cited in Author 2, Year)

Author 1, Year of original (as cited in Author 2, Year)

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell, 1999) stated that ...

"..." (Schwartz, 2006, as cited in Burton et al., 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F. (1999). Phonology. Brooks Cole.

Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2009). Psychology. Wiley.

EndNote Reference Type

Lecture - Online Multimedia

Reading Lists - Newspaper Article or Electronic Article or Electronic Book Section