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UC Referencing Guide

Web Site

When citing an entire web site it is sufficient to cite the address in the text.

e.g. Beyondblue <> is a website supporting ...

If you wish to acknowledge the entire web site in your reference list, use the format below.


Author, AA Year of creation, Name of site sponsor/owner, Location, viewed Day Month Year, <http://xxxxx>


International Narcotics Control Board 1999, United Nations, Vienna, viewed 1 October 1999, <>

Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations 2009, DEEWR, Canberra, viewed 21 November 2009, <>

Web Document


Author, AA Year of creation, Title of work, Sponsor of the site, Location, viewed Day Month Year, <http://xxxxx>


University of Canberra 2009, Copyright guide, Version 13, University of Canberra, viewed 23 November 2009, <>

MacIsaac, D 1995, An introduction to action research, Buffalo State University of New York, viewed 28 May 2004, <>

Dick, B 2012, A Beginner's Guide to Action Research, viewed 1 November 2012, <>

Simon, J, Smith, K & West, T 2009, Price incentives and consumer payment behaviour, Reserve Bank of Australia, Sydney, viewed 24 November 2009, <>

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation n.d., Reducing Australia's greenhouse emissions factsheet, CSIRO, Canberra, viewed 3 June 2012, <>

EndNote Reference Type

Web Page

Citing a Source Within a Source

When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read.

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell 1999, p.25) stated that '...'

'...' (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen & Kowalski 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F 1999, Phonology, Brooks Cole, San Francisco.

Burton L, Westen D & Kowalski R 2009, Psychology, Wiley, Milton, Qld.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.


Title of work Year of publication, Publisher, Location.


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun 1983, Blackwell, Oxford, England.

No Location / No Publisher / No Year

General guidelines

If the location is not known - substitute n.p. in place of the location.

There are no guidelines for citing works with no publisher in the Style Manual: For Authors, Editors and Printers.  It is acceptable in other styles to use the location and date.  Consult your lecturer before citing material without a publisher.

If the date is not known - substitute an approximate date (c. for circa or ? after date) or n.d. in place of the year.

Format - no date

Author, AA c. year, Title of work, Publisher, Location.

Author, AA n.d., Title of work, Publisher, Location.

Author, AA 1943?, Title of work, Publisher, Location.


Smythe, V c. 2007, Ant colonies: How they communicate, Emu, Canberra.

Browne, JD n.d., Forensic science as a career, Tower, London.