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UC Referencing Guide

In-Text Citations

General guidelines for in-text citations

(In-text citations for specific formats are listed below)

In-text citations are entered in 2 ways:

  • 'Information prominent' (the author's name is within the parentheses):

 The conclusion reached in a recent study (Cochrane 2007) was that ...

  • 'Author prominent' (the author's name is outside the parentheses):

Cochrane (2007) concluded that ...


Format - no direct quote
a) No page number

(Author Year)

Author (Year)


The conclusion reached in a recent study (Cochrane 2007) was that ...

Cochrane (2007) concluded that ...

b) Paraphrasing concept / idea

... (Author Year, p. Page)

Author (Year, pp. Page) ...

Format - direct quote, fewer than 30 words

'...' (Author Year, p. Page)

Author (Year, pp. Page) '...'

The quote is entered in single quotation marks.

An interesting view was expressed that 'the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned' (Cochrane 2007, p. 117).

An interesting view was expressed by Cochrane (2007, p. 117) that 'the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned'.


Format - direct quote, more than 30 words

Text ... Author (Year, pp. Page)




   Quote (Author, Year, p. Page)

Quotation marks are not used in this format. The entire quote must be indented and single spaced.

Much has been written about acute care. Finkelman (2006, pp. 184-5), for example, points out that:

There are many changes in acute care services occurring almost daily, and due to the increasing use of outpatient surgery, surgical services have experienced major changes. Hospitals are increasing the size of their outpatient or ambulatory surgery departments and adjusting to the need of moving patients into and out of surgical service in 1 day or even a few hours.

Recently, this trend has been seen in some Australian hospitals and research here ...

One Author


(Author Year)

Author (Year)


The conclusion reached in a recent study (Cochrane 2007) was that ...

Cochrane (2007) concluded that ...

Two or Three Authors


(Author & Author Year)

Author and Author (Year)


Littlejohn and Foss (2005)

(Carr & Kemmis 1986)


Cite all names every time the reference occurs in text.

Four or More Authors


(Author 1 et al. Year)

Author 1 et al. (Year)


(Duffy et al. 2001)

Green et al. (2009)


Use this format in first and subsequent occurrences.

If citing two or more books with different authors which shorten to the same author and year, then add extra authors until they are unique.


Green PF, Andrews SD, Peterson GH & Edwards TW 2010

Green SL, Snowden PY, Robertson BL & Moss V 2010

In-text citations become:

(Green, Andrews et al. 2010)

(Green, Snowden et al. 2010)

Same Author, Same Year

General guidelines

If the same author or group of authors have multiple works published in the same year, identify each work by adding the suffixes a, b, c, d after the year.


(Fullan 1996a)

(Fullan 1996b)

Corporate Author / Organisation


(Corporate author Year)

Corporate author (Year)


The first occurrence of the name of a corporate author must be given in full, whether in the written text or in a citation.  If the abbreviation of the corporate author is familiar or readily understandable then it can be entered after the full name and used in subsequent occurrences. e.g. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW).


In the text: The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) has surveyed ...


First citation: (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2009)

Subsequent occurrences: (AIHW 2009)

Two or More Works Cited Together

General guidelines

Order the citations within the parentheses in alphabetical order as they would appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon.


(Carr & Kemmis 1986; Dick 2000; Kemmis & McTaggart 1988; MacIsaac 1995)

Citing a Source Within a Source

When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read.

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell 1999, p.25) stated that '...'

'...' (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen & Kowalski 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F 1999, Phonology, Brooks Cole, San Francisco.

Burton L, Westen D & Kowalski R 2009, Psychology, Wiley, Milton, Qld.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If no author is present use the title in place of the author.  The title may be shortened to the first few words if it is a long title.

Use single quotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter or a web page.

Italicize the title of a periodical, a book, a brochure or a report.


(Title Year)

Title (Year)


(Macroeconomics, prices and quantities 1983)

'Internet pioneer to oversee network redesign' (2007)

('Tunguska event' 2012)

No Year

If no date of publication is available use an estimated date or n.d. in place of the year.


(Author c. Year)

(Author n.d.)

(Author 1943?)


Smythe (c. 2007)

(Browne n.d.)

Special Cases

Multivolume sets or collections produced over several years

Enter a range of years to cover the set or collection.

(Allport, 1930-1967)

Personal communication

Include the words pers. comm., and the full date of the communication. Never include email addresses in your citation.

(M Coleman 2007, pers. comm., 11 July)


Include the name, year of the Act, and the jurisdiction.

(Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Cwlth))

Case law

Give the name of the case and the year of the decision.

(Mace v. Murray 1955)


Include the title in italics and the year of production.

(House for the nation 2001)

Film, video, television, radio, podcast, YouTube

Include the title of the item in italics and the year of production.

(Lord of the Rings: the return of the king 2003)