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UC Referencing Guide

General E-Book Guideline

E-books often lack page numbers or the pagination changes depending on the e-reader.  If you are required to provide pagination (check with your lecturer) use the following guidelines –

  • a paragraph or chapter number, if provided; alternatively, you can count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document; 
  • an overarching heading plus a paragraph number within that section; or 
  • an abbreviated heading (or the first few words of the heading) in quotation marks, in cases in which the heading is too unwieldy to cite in full.



Author, AA Year of publication, Title of work, version, viewed Day Month Year, <http://xxxxx>

Author, AA Year of publication, Title of work, version, viewed Day Month Year, Database name.


Schiraldi, GR 2001, The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: a guide to healing, recovery, and growth, Adobe Digital Editions, viewed 3 July 2012, Amazon.

Niemann, S, Greenstein, D & David, D 2004, Helping children who are deaf: family and community support for children who do not hear well, viewed 11 June 2007, <>

Eddings, D 2010, The Pawn of prophecy, Kindle edn, viewed 27 March 2011, Amazon.

Faggiano, V 2012, Critical incident management: a complete response guide, 2nd edn, viewed 12 November 2012, <>


See Book - Print for all Book formats (e.g. multiple authors, corporate authors, later editions).

EndNote Reference Type

Electronic Book

Citing a Source Within a Source

When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read.

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell 1999, p.25) stated that '...'

'...' (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen & Kowalski 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F 1999, Phonology, Brooks Cole, San Francisco.

Burton L, Westen D & Kowalski R 2009, Psychology, Wiley, Milton, Qld.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.


Title of work Year of publication, Publisher, Location.


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun 1983, Blackwell, Oxford, England.

No Location / No Publisher / No Year

General guidelines

If the location is not known - substitute n.p. in place of the location.

There are no guidelines for citing works with no publisher in the Style Manual: For Authors, Editors and Printers.  It is acceptable in other styles to use the location and date.  Consult your lecturer before citing material without a publisher.

If the date is not known - substitute an approximate date (c. for circa or ? after date) or n.d. in place of the year.

Format - no date

Author, AA c. year, Title of work, Publisher, Location.

Author, AA n.d., Title of work, Publisher, Location.

Author, AA 1943?, Title of work, Publisher, Location.


Smythe, V c. 2007, Ant colonies: How they communicate, Emu, Canberra.

Browne, JD n.d., Forensic science as a career, Tower, London.