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UC Referencing Guide

Facebook / Twitter

General guidelines

To cite a Twitter feed or Facebook page as a whole or to discuss it in general, it is sufficient to give the site URL in text, inside round brackets. There is no need for a reference list entry.

To cite a specific post use the format below.

Cite the author as it appears in the post not as Author, AA


Author Year of post, Title of Post, type of post, Day Month of post, viewed Day Month Year, <http://xxxxx>


Duncan Henley 2020, Channeling an autumn palatte, Instagram, 13 November, viewed 16 April 2021,

Kevin Rudd and Labor 2009, Australian civilian corps to help in crises, Facebook update, 24 October, viewed 20 November 2009, <>

White, B 2018, I treasure every minute we spent together, Twitter, 21 June, viewed 16 April 2021,

Zeitz MOCAA 2018, Grade 6 learners from Parkfields Primary School in Hanover Park visited the museum for a tour and workshop hosted by..., Instagram, 26 November, viewed 16 April 2021,

EndNote Reference Type


Citing a Source Within a Source

When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read.

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell 1999, p.25) stated that '...'

'...' (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen & Kowalski 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F 1999, Phonology, Brooks Cole, San Francisco.

Burton L, Westen D & Kowalski R 2009, Psychology, Wiley, Milton, Qld.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.


Title of work Year of publication, Publisher, Location.


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun 1983, Blackwell, Oxford, England.

No Location / No Publisher / No Year

General guidelines

If the location is not known - substitute n.p. in place of the location.

There are no guidelines for citing works with no publisher in the Style Manual: For Authors, Editors and Printers.  It is acceptable in other styles to use the location and date.  Consult your lecturer before citing material without a publisher.

If the date is not known - substitute an approximate date (c. for circa or ? after date) or n.d. in place of the year.

Format - no date

Author, AA c. year, Title of work, Publisher, Location.

Author, AA n.d., Title of work, Publisher, Location.

Author, AA 1943?, Title of work, Publisher, Location.


Smythe, V c. 2007, Ant colonies: How they communicate, Emu, Canberra.

Browne, JD n.d., Forensic science as a career, Tower, London.