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UC Referencing Guide

Image, Picture, Figure, Table, Graph or Chart

General guidelines

If there is no title on an item, e.g. photo from the web, create a title and enter it in square brackets in place of the title.

[Child playing with dog]

Format - Image in another work

Creator, AA Year of publication, 'Title of image', description of material, in A Author (if different from Creator), Title of work, Publisher, Location, pp. xx.

Format - Published image

Creator, AA Year of creation, Title of image, description of material, Publisher, Location.

Creator, AA Year of creation, Title of image, description of material, viewed Day Month Year, <http://xxxxx>

Format - Unpublished image

Creator, AA Year of creation, 'Title of image', decription of material.


Kaplan, RS & Norton, DP 2004, 'Internal processes deliver value over different time horizons', graph, in Strategy maps: Converting intangible assets into tangible outcomes, Harvard Business School, Boston, p. 48.

Monet, C 1890, Haystacks, midday, online copy of painting, viewed 18 November 2009, <>

Jordan, D 2004, Hawaii's 'gentle' volcano more dangerous than thought, photograph, viewed 16 July 2012, <>

Barnes, CR 2005, '[Library at Dawn]', photograph, Canberra.

EndNote Reference Type

Book Section  or  Electronic Book Section  or  Artwork

Citing a Source Within a Source

When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read.

In-text reference

Lilly (as cited in Maxwell 1999, p.25) stated that '...'

'...' (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen & Kowalski 2009, p.63)

Reference list

Maxwell, F 1999, Phonology, Brooks Cole, San Francisco.

Burton L, Westen D & Kowalski R 2009, Psychology, Wiley, Milton, Qld.

No Author / Editor

General guidelines

If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.


Title of work Year of publication, Publisher, Location.


Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun 1983, Blackwell, Oxford, England.

No Location / No Publisher / No Year

General guidelines

If the location is not known - substitute n.p. in place of the location.

There are no guidelines for citing works with no publisher in the Style Manual: For Authors, Editors and Printers.  It is acceptable in other styles to use the location and date.  Consult your lecturer before citing material without a publisher.

If the date is not known - substitute an approximate date (c. for circa or ? after date) or n.d. in place of the year.

Format - no date

Author, AA c. year, Title of work, Publisher, Location.

Author, AA n.d., Title of work, Publisher, Location.

Author, AA 1943?, Title of work, Publisher, Location.


Smythe, V c. 2007, Ant colonies: How they communicate, Emu, Canberra.

Browne, JD n.d., Forensic science as a career, Tower, London.