Personal communication is cited in-text only with no entry in the Reference List. Include the name of the sender and the date of the communication.
(C. Barnes 2004, pers. comm., 13 May)
Miss C Barnes confirmed this in an email on 13 May 2004.
Personal Communication (For recording your communication only - not entered in Reference List)
When citing a source you haven't read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read.
Lilly (as cited in Maxwell 1999, p.25) stated that '...'
'...' (Schwartz as cited in Burton, Westen & Kowalski 2009, p.63)
Maxwell, F 1999, Phonology, Brooks Cole, San Francisco.
Burton L, Westen D & Kowalski R 2009, Psychology, Wiley, Milton, Qld.
If there is no author - substitute the title in the position of the author.
Title of work Year of publication, Publisher, Location.
Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun 1983, Blackwell, Oxford, England.
If the location is not known - substitute n.p. in place of the location.
There are no guidelines for citing works with no publisher in the Style Manual: For Authors, Editors and Printers. It is acceptable in other styles to use the location and date. Consult your lecturer before citing material without a publisher.
If the date is not known - substitute an approximate date (c. for circa or ? after date) or n.d. in place of the year.
Author, AA c. year, Title of work, Publisher, Location.
Author, AA n.d., Title of work, Publisher, Location.
Author, AA 1943?, Title of work, Publisher, Location.
Smythe, V c. 2007, Ant colonies: How they communicate, Emu, Canberra.
Browne, JD n.d., Forensic science as a career, Tower, London.