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UC Referencing Guide

What is Harvard style?

Harvard is an author-date referencing system with in-text citations and a reference list.  This style is widely accepted in the physical, natural and social sciences and is gaining popularity in the humanities.

General Guidelines


Author, AA Year, Title, Publisher, Location.

Editor, AA (ed.) Year, Title, Publisher, Location.

Author, AA Year, 'Title of article', Title of Journal, vol. x, no. x, pp. xx-xx.

  • Authors are entered in the form Author, AA with no punctuation after each initial. An editor is entered with "(ed.)" after the name, but use "(eds)" if there are more than one editor.

Smith, JF & Tindale, P

  • Titles of published works are entered in italics. Minimal capitalization is used in reference entries.

This is my life: collection of photos by Andrew Snowden

  • Titles of unpublished works, article titles and section titles are entered in single quotation marks.

'How we use mobile phones', Social Science Quarterly

  • Titles: If there is no title on an item, e.g. photo from the web, create a title and enter it in square brackets in place of the title.

[Child playing with dog]

  • Publisher: Give one location, usually the first named, as the place of publication. Place of publication is entered as city only unless the location is ambiguous or obscure, where a qualification of state or country is added. Give the publisher as it appears in the item.  Do not include the city or state if it is part of the publisher name.

One-Time Publishers, Cambridge, UK.

William Drysdale, Cambridge, Mass.

Butterworth, North Ryde, NSW.

University of Canberra.

In-Text Citation

You need to provide an in-text reference if you:

  • use a long direct quotation
  • use a short direct quotation
  • use an indirect quotation by either paraphrasing or summarising

In-text references typically contain the following information, in this order:

  • the surname (family name) of the author/s
  • the year of publication of the text
  • the page number/s of the text (usually for direct quotations, particular ideas and concepts)

Reference List

References are created using these style guidelines.  They are then listed in a reference list or bibliography.  This list is filed alphabetically by author, or by title if there is no author.

You will need to compile a list of all sources used in your assignment/report. Your Reference list must provide full and accurate details, as it is the means by which the reader can locate your sources. Guidelines for referencing a variety of sources are available in this Library Guide.

Harvard and EndNote

None of the Harvard Citation Styles supplied by EndNote are suitable for use at the University of Canberra.

If you are using the EndNote program to organise your references, please download the UC Harvard Style below.